ANS3319C Exam 2 Study Guide Fall2011

ANS3319C Exam 2 Study Guide Fall2011 - ANS3319C Exam 2...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: ANS3319C Exam 2 Study Guide Exam one will cover the following 1. Lecture notes: Puberty, Male Endocrinology & Spermatogenesis, Male Behavior, Semen Collection, and Reproductive Cycles (Pages 38- 93). 2. Takehome messages and worksheets for semen collection labs in boar and stallion. 3. Reading in book: Chpt 6 (128- 143); Chpt 7 (144- 163); Chpt 10 (214- 239); Chpt 11 (240- 265) A. Puberty 1. Which steroid hormone crosses the blood brain barrier? What enzyme converts this enzyme to estrogen? 2. Which steroid hormone prevents development of the surge center in the brain of the male, also known as defeminizing of the brain? 3. What three definitions can be used to describe the onset of puberty in the female? 4. What three definitions can be used to describe on set of puberty in the male? 5. Understand the relationship between estrogen negative feedback and how it initially down regulates LH secretion and how estrogen eventually up regulates LH secretion to enhance the onset of puberty. 6. Study Table 6- 1 & 6- 2 and know the average age at puberty across the different species. 7. Understand how nutrition, either excess or restricted, can influence the onset of puberty by the degree of fatness of the animal. 8. What hormone is produced by adipocytes, is directly related to the amount of body fat, is thought to hasten the onset of puberty, and by what endocrine mechanism it can do this by? 9. In swine, as the number of prepubertal gilts in a pen increases, what happens to the onset of puberty or the rate at which the gilt attains puberty? 10. Will physical contact of prepubertal gilts with a boar hasten the onset of puberty more than fence line exposure of prepubertal gilts to a boar? Please be able to explain the mechanism. 11. In questions 10 and 11, what type of “cues” are involved in enhancing puberty in the pig? B. Male: Endocrinology and Spermatogenesis 1. What pituitary hormone stimulates the sertoli cells to regulate spermatogenesis? 2. What pituitary hormone stimulates the leydig cells and what steroid hormone do they produce? 3. In what fashion must LH be released for normal biological function to occur in the testes? a. What happens if chronic and elevated levels of LH are released in the male? What is the mechanism by which this acts? 4. What are the general functions of the process of spermatogenesis? 5. Understand the function and level of sperm cell development of the three stages of spermatogenesis in Figure 10- 5 (proliferation, meiosis, differentiation). 6. Describe what happens in the four different stages of differentiation and what is the significant event that occurs in each stage. 7. What are the different sections of the sperm cell? a. b. 8. Relative to the structural anatomy, what provides the “power” to a sperm cell and where are these cells located? What is the junction between the midpiece and principle piece (tail) of a sperm cell called? Know the different stages of bovine spermatogenesis relative to how long it takes to develop a sperm cell until it leaves the testis by answering the following questions: a. b. How many days does meiosis I last? c. How many days does meiosis II last? d. How many days for spermiogenesis (differentiation)? e. How many days for epididymal transport? f. 9. How many days does mitosis last? Using the above number of days for each stage, calculate how long a fertility problem caused by heat stress will last if the heat stress lasts for 14 days (Hint: this level heat stress will effect spermatid development). The cycle of the seminiferous epithelium describes sperm production as a process in ____________; in contrast, the spermatogenic wave describes sperm production as a process in _______________. What is the general function of the spermatogenic wave? 10. What is the general relationship between testes size & sertoli cell number and sperm producing ability of an animal? 11. Be able to describe the three evaluations used to measure sperm viability and how each can have a detrimental effect on fertility? 12. In what two anatomical locations of the male reproductive tract can sperm cell abnormalities be manifested? What are the types of abnormalities typically associated with these locations? 13. When evaluating sperm concentration in an ejaculate, how is it typically expressed? What would be the primary purpose of determining sperm concentration of an ejaculate in most farm animals? 14. Besides the factors you just listed in question 11, there are several other factors that can lead to abnormal sperm cell function. What are they? 15. During sperm cell development, does heat stress kill sperm? Yes or No. Explain your answer 16. What is the order of damage inflicted by heat stress on sperm cell development (i.e. what stages are damaged first, second, and last)? Does this have any effect on sperm DNA? 17. What is the difference between acute heat stress and chronic heat stress and what is the relationship with male fertility. C. Semen Collection, Ejaculate Characteristics and Processing 1. Name the method used to collect semen in each animal listed below and the amount of semen (mL) typically collected in an ejaculate: a. Bull, Ram, Cat, Boar, Horse, Rooster, Dog b. In which of the above species do we require the use of a filter on the collection device and what is the function of the filter? 2. When evaluating an ejaculate to be used in an artificial insemination program (AI), what are the four primary items evaluated? 3. In order for an ejaculate to be extended and the semen potentially frozen, at what percentage motility value should the ejaculate be? Please explain? 4. Relative to semen extenders, please answer the following questions: a. What is the primary function of a semen extender in an AI program? b. What are the five primary ingredients found in extenders and describe the function of each. c. What substance in an extender is primarily used as a cyroprotectant? d. Relative to long- term storage, at what temperature is extended semen stored ? 5. The X chromosome contains _______ % more DNA than the Y chromosome. 6. What method is typically used to sex sort semen and what limitations are associated with this method, which make it difficult to use on a commercial basis? 7. What gene, located on the Y chromosome, determines gender of the fertilized embryo? D. Reproductive Behavior 1. What are the four sensory signals that can initiate reproductive behavior? 2. Be able to describe precopulatory, copulatory, and postcopulatory behaviors in the male. 3. Be able to describe attractivity, proceptivity, and receptivity behaviors in the female. 4. What is the purpose of “ A curled upper lip” or “Flehman Response” commonly observed in males? a. Is the Flehman response used as a short- or long- range investigative behavior? 5. What are pheromones and what type of secretions are they typically found in in males and females? 6. Define the term “lordosis”? 7. Study Table 11- 1 for both male and female behaviors and be able to recognize the following: searching behaviors, courtship behaviors, and consummation behaviors. 8. Reproductive behavior is stimulated by what steroid hormones, which are different between males and females? 9. Be able to describe an auditory, visual, or tactile stimulation behavior as it is relates to sexual posturing? What is an example of a long- range signal? E. Penile Erection 1. Be able to describe the coordination that is required between the neural system and vasomotor system during an erection and how they influences blood pressure in the penis. Is this more important in a vascular penis or a fibroelastic penis? Please explain. 2. Activation of what neurons in the penis assist in stimulating an erection? 3. What biochemical signal is released by the neurons that stimulate vasodilation in the penis? 4. What is the function of sildenafil citrate (Viagra) and how does it stimulates and assist in maintenance of an erection? 5. What are the four stages of copulatory behavior? 6. Know the number of fractions that compose an ejaculate in the ram, bull, boar, and dog 7. The period of postcopulatory behavior in which another ejaculation cannot occur is known as? Additionally, what is the difference between satiation and exhaustion? 8. List four factors that affect the length of the refractory period: 9. What is the difference between homosexual behaviors and homosexual- like behaviors? How can they be used to determine whether some farm animals are in estrus? F. Reproductive Cyclicity 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What is the purpose of the estrous cycle from a reproductive standpoint? Know what is meant by the terms polyestrus, seasonally polyestrus (Short and Long day breeders), and monoestrus. Be able to identify several animal species within each category. What is the average length of the estrous cycle and the average duration of estrus in the cow, ewe, mare, sow, bitch, queen (Table 7- 1)? What are the two major phases of the estrous cycle? What two specific stages make up the follicular phase? a. What steroid hormone is dominant during these stages? b. In what stage does ovulation occur? What pituitary hormone surge causes ovulation? What two specific stages make up the luteal phase? a. What steroid hormone is dominant during these stages? b. If a farm animal is not pregnant by the end of the luteal phase, what hormone stimulates luteolysis and what reproductive organ secretes it? What are the different stages of the estrous cycle in the bitch? How does it differ from the estrous cycle in most farm animals? 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. What are the different stages of the estrous cycle in the queen? How does it differ from the estrous cycle in most farm animals? Is ovulation similar or different between the queen and other farm animals? Please explain. Define the term anestrous and identify several different causes of it? What is the difference between nutritional induced anestrous and lactational induced anestrous? What brain hormone drives the initiation or termination of the estrous cycles in the short and long day breeders and what endocrine gland produces it? What is the definition of the menstrual cycle? What is the average duration of the menstrual cycle? What are the different stages of it? Define the term menses? On average, what day of the menstrual cycle does ovulation occur in women? What significant physiological event also occurs at around the time of ovulation that can also be used to tell that ovulation is eminent? What reproductive structure secretes ProstaglandinF2 in women? Absence of the menstrual cycle in reproductive age women is known as? The period where normal ovarian function ceases to exist in women is known as? α Know the diagrams for the estrous cycle (Fig 7- 3) and the menstrual cycle (Fig 7- 10) in the book. This includes hormones, and stages of the cycles. Also know Table 7- 2, which compares the estrous cycle against the menstrual cycle. All of these tables are in the lecture notes. ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course ANS 3319C taught by Professor Yelich during the Fall '07 term at University of Florida.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online