ANS3319C Exam 3 Study Guide HO Fall2011

ANS3319C Exam 3 Study Guide HO Fall2011 - ANS3319C Exam ...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: ANS3319C Exam 3 Review Fall 2011 Note: This review it is not inclusive of everything that could appear on Exam 3. Therefore, do NOT just study this to prepare for the exam. Be sure to study lecture notes Page 94 to approximately page151, Take home messages on semen collection in boar and bull, placental development, and read the book to be fully prepared. Best of luck. Reproductive Cyclicity- Follicular Phase 1. Please circle the most appropriate choice Stage of estrous cycle Progesterone Estrogen LH FSH Proestrus Increasing Decreasing Increasing Decreasing Increasing Decreasing Estrus Low High Increasing Decreasing Increasing Decreasing Surge No change Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Low High Metestrus Diestrus Increasing Decreasing Low High 2. What effect do either low, elevated, or decreasing progesterone concentrations have on LH pulse frequency and LH pulse amplitude during the estrous cycle? Additionally, how do progesterone concentrations control follicle wave development during the estrous cycle? 3. As progesterone concentrations decline, estrogen has a ____________ feedback effect on GnRH release from the hypothalamus to stimulate the surge of _______ from the pituitary. 4. During the estrous cycle, what is the origin of estrogen and what are the specific cells that secrete it? 5. Be able to define what follicle wave development is: When it occurs during the lifetime of an animal? What the distinct components of it are? 6. Please circle the most appropriate term as it relates to follicle development. Make sure you understand why the hormone concentrations are at the concentrations they are for each respective stage of follicle development. It would be beneficial to know Figure 8.7 in the book as well as its appearance on Quiz 3 Stage of follicle FSH LH Inhibin Estrogen development Increasing Recruitment Low High Low High Low High Decreasing Low Medium Increasing Increasing Selection Low Medium High Decreasing Decreasing Increasing Dominance Low High Low High Low High Decreasing 7. Relative to ovarian function, LH stimulates ____ cells, while FSH stimulates ____ cells. 8. What are the general functions of estrogen on the reproductive tract? 9. Define the term “spontaneous ovulator” and list four different species that are induced ovulators? 10. Define the term “induced ovulator” and list four different species that are induced ovulators? 11. Define the term “modified induced ovulator” and provide a species that is a modified induced ovulator ? 12. What is the purpose of nuclear arrest of the developing oocyte at the end of the first meiotic prophase during the prenatal period? 13. When does the resumption of meiosis I in the oocyte occur in farm animals? 14. When does the resumption of meiosis I in the oocyte occur in cats/dogs? 15. What is the reason for meiotic division of oocytes in mammals and what is the eventual result of these divisions? 16. Be able to describe the roles of PGE2, PGF2 and progesterone in the process of ovulation. α Reproductive Cyclicity: Luteal Phase 1. The functional capacity of the CL is driven by its ability to produce what steroid hormone? What is the substrate for this hormone? And what pituitary hormone drives the secretion of this hormone? 2. Relative to large luteal cells: Where do they originate from? What is the primary steroid hormone they produce? And by what cellular mechanism do they grow by? 3. Relative to small luteal cells: Where do they originate from? What is the primary steroid hormone they produce? By what cellular mechanism do they grow by? 4. LH receptors are found in __________ luteal cells. 5. Oxytocin and relaxin are released from ____________ luteal cells. 6. What is the function of progesterone on the brain, specifically the hypothalamus? 7. What is the function of progesterone on the female reproductive tract during the luteal phase? 8. Luteolysis consists of two parts, functional and structural luteolysis. Please provide a general definition of each. 9. Relative to functional and structural luteolysis, please list the intracellular mechanisms that lead to luteolysis. 10. In subprimates, please describe why the vascular counter current exchange between the uterus and ovary is necessary for luteolysis. 11. Where does the luteolytic signal originate from in humans and briefly describe the process of luteolysis in humans? 12. What role does PGF2α have on the uterus in humans during luteolysis? Sperm Transport, Capacitation, and Fertilization 1. Name the site of semen deposition during artificial insemination for each species listed below: a. Mare, Cow, Sheep, Sow, Dogs/Cats 2. What are the three primary functions of the cervix? 3. Define the term capacitation as it relates to sperm physiology? 4. There are a series of coordinated post- capacitation events (Fig 12- 9) associated with sperm and its eventual fertilization of the oocyte, list the events in the order they would typically occur? (Note: make sure you understand what is occurring at each stage) 5. What are the specific proteins that facilitate sperm binding to the oocyte and what are the general functions of each specific protein? 6. Briefly describe the acrosome action? 7. The cortical reaction consists of the zona reaction and vitelline block, please describe the function of each and why are they so important in the process of fertilization of the oocyte? 8. In the female human reproductive tract, what is the lifespan of the oocyte and the sperm? What role does this have on the length of the fertile period in humans around the time of ovulation? Early embryogenesis and Maternal Recognition of pregnancy 1. Define cleavage as it relates to the early developing embryo. 2. The blastocyst consists of two distinct cell populations. Please name them and indicate what each eventually give rises to as the conceptus develops? 3. What is the difference between conceptus elongation in the cow compared to the sow and horse? 4. Be able to define the functions of the amnion, chorion, and allantois? Know where each of these layers in placental development in relation to either the fetus proper or the endometrium. 5. Know the pregnancy recognition factors for the cat/dog, cow, ewe, mare, sow, and woman and where they originate from. Also understand how each respective signal functions to make sure that luteolysis is prevented and pregnancy is recognized. Placentation and Endocrinology of Pregnancy 1. Complete the following table: Chorionic Villi pattern Placental tissue layers Indicate if the placentation is: attachment, invasive, semi- invasive Sow/mare Cow/Sheep Dog/cat Human Animal 2. From a placental physiology effect, why is the human conceptus more susceptible to birth defects? 3. What four functions does the placenta have that is analogous to the same functions in the postnatal individual? 4. What type of exchange mechanism does oxygen use to cross the placental membrane and what is the importance of oxygen to the fetus? 5. What is the primary energy source for fetal development and how does this energy source cross the placenta from maternal to fetal circulation? 6. What are the primary substrates for fetal protein synthesis and how do these substrates y cross the placental membrane? 7. Why do farm animals plus the cat/dog require colostrum immediately after parturition, whereas; human newborns do not? 8. What hormone is tested for to determine pregnancy status in a human pregnancy test? What is the function of this hormone? 9. Please list the endocrine functions of the placenta. 10. What is the primary function of placental progesterone? 11. What luteotrophic hormone is produced by the equine placenta? What is it origin? What are its functions? 12. What species requires a functional CL for the entire gestation? 13. What is the gestation length for the following species: bitch, queen, cow, ewe, mare, rabbit, sow, human. 14. What are the general functions of placental lactogen? Embryogenesis: Male and Female Reproductive Systems 1. In the early developing embryo, what is the landmark that forms the longitudinal axis of the embryo and the rest of the embryo develops from? 2. In the early developing embryo, where do the primordial germ cells originate from? 3. The process of unspecialized cells developing into functional, recognizable groups of cells with specific functions is known as ____________________. 4. In the table below list the three germ cell layers of an early developing embryo and the list tissues and(or) organs that they develop into? 5. What ducts associated with the early embryonic fetal kidney eventually form the male tract? 6. What ducts associated with the early embryonic fetal kidney eventually form the female tract? 7. Study Figure 4- 6 and understand how the male and female reproductive systems develop. 8. What hormone causes degeneration of paramesonephric ducts? 9. Where is AMH released from? 10. Define cryptorchidism and know the difference between a unilateral and bilateral cryptorchid and the relationship relative to fertility of animals that are either bilateral or unilateral cryptorchid for both. 11. In the bovine, what is a freemartin and what is the cause of it? Fetal Growth, Development, and Physiology (If we do not finish this by Wed Nov 16, it will NOT be on exam 3). 1. What are the primary components of the fetal diet? 2. What structure in the fetus shunts blood away from the liver (except in pigs/horses)? 3. What structure in the fetus moves fetal blood from the right atrium to the left atrium of the heart? 4. What structure in the fetus shunts fetal blood away from the lungs to the descending aorta? 6. Relative to fetal development in the bovine, understand what significant physiological events of both fetal and placental development that occur during the three major stages of growth in the bovine model (Early 0 to 90; Mid 90 to 180; Late gestation 180 to 280). 7. What type of cellular growth is characteristic of early fetal growth? 8. What type of cellular growth is characteristic of mid to late fetal growth? 9. What type of cellular growth is characteristic of late fetal growth? 10. What stage of fetal development in the cow, do external stimuli have the least effect on fetal growth? Explain why. 11. What stage of fetal development in the cows, do external stimuli have the greatest effect on the fetus? Explain why. 12. Environmental factors such as excessive cold and warm temperatures can effect fetal growth and development. Please explain how these external stimuli affect physiological events associated with fetal development. 13. Why do increased fetal numbers in polytocous species amplify the effects of poor nutrition and(or) external environmental insults? 14. What is the general order of tissue development of 4 major tissue layers in the developing fetus? ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course ANS 3319C taught by Professor Yelich during the Fall '07 term at University of Florida.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online