ANS3319Exam1_Fall2011KeyV2 - ANS 3319C Reproductive ...

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Unformatted text preview: ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 1 (100 pts: Sept. 23, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Please place the most appropriate answer the blank provided. Please spell out all terms (1 pt each). 1) Ovulation fossa Anatomical location on mare ovary where follicle is ovulated. 2) Prostaglandin Classification of lipid hormones derived from arachidonic acid. 3) Cervix Anatomical structure that prevents bacteria from entering uterus during pregnancy. 4) Tertiary follicle Mature ovarian structure with an antrum and multiple layers of granulosa cells. 5) Estrogen Ovarian steroid hormone that initiates behavioral estrus. 6) Leydig (interstitial) Steroid secreting cells found in testes. 7) Cholesterol Compound that serves as precursor to steroid hormones. 8) Inhibin Ovarian or testes glycoprotein that inhibits FSH secretion. 9) Caudal (tail) Primary section of epididymis where sperm are stored for ejaculation. 10) Cerebrum Part of brain involved in higher mental function. 11) Simple columnar Type of epithelial cells that line the uterine glands. (Listed columnar ½ credit) 12) Penile Spines Anatomical structures in male cat that stimulate LH surge & ovulation during mating 13) Elisa Procedure used to determine pregnancy status in the urine of women. 14) Parenchyma Common name of cellular mass that comprises 70% of testis 15) Vascular Relative to its structural anatomy, type of penis found in the stallion and human. 16) Albert Who is the mascot of the Gator Nation? 17) Broad ligament General name of suspensory tissue connected to ovary, oviduct, and uterus. 18) Nucleus or cytosol Where, in the cell, are receptors for steroid hormones located? 19) Preoptic Nucleus in the hypothalamus that is primarily responsible for LH surge. 20) Seminiferous tubules Specific anatomical structure in testes where spermatogenesis occurs. 21) Sella turcica (Sphenoid) Name of bone that houses and protects the pituitary gland. 22) Vas deferens Gross anatomical structure that moves sperm from epididymis to the ampulla. 23) Sertoli Somatic cells located in testes that serve as nurse cells for sperm. 24) Phermones Air borne chemical messengers secreted by vestibular glands. 25) Membrane Where, in the cell, are receptors located for protein hormones? Page 1 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 1 (100 pts: Sept. 23, 2011) Name: _______________________________ True or False. Circle the correct answer. If a phase or word is underlined it is the central focus of the statement and cannot be changed to make the statement true. If you answered a question false you must provide a brief but specific statement that would correct the statement to receive credit (2 pts each). 1) T 2) F The cervix is stimulated by estrogen during estrus, which secretes mucous that lubricates the vagina, assist in sperm transport, and minimizes micro- organisms entry into uterus T F The three primary functions of the epididymis are embryo development, sperm storage, and oxytocin secretion. The functions as storage, transport, and maturation of sperm 3) T F Progesterone is known as the hormone of pregnancy and some of its functions include preventing the expression of estrus, blocking myometrial contractions during pregnancy, and stimulation of uterine secretions in the early pregnant animal. 4) T F From a tissue layer perspective, the uterus is composed of three specific layers starting form the lumen and moving outward including the mesoovarian, mesosalpinx, and mesometrium. The layers are the endometrium, myometrium, perimetrium 6) T F In the cat, dog, and cow, semen is deposited in the fornix vagina. The successive order that sperm travels through the tract includes the cervix, uterine body, uterine horns, uterine- tubal junction, and finally the ampullary- isthmic junction where fertilization occurs. 7) T F The primary steroid hormone secreted by the follicle is progesterone; whereas, the primary steroid hormone secreted by the corpus luteum in estrogen. The follicle secretes estrogen and the CL produces progesterone T F T F In the female reproductive tract, seminal plasma functions as a transport/culture media for sperm, can retard sperm capacitation, and provides energy (fructose) for sperm metabolism. This question was eliminated and everyone received 2 pts. Should have underlined female reproductive tract and the answer would have been true. T F The caudal vagina is lined with stratified squamous epithelium, which serves to thicken the 8) 9) 10) Seminal plasma is secreted by three accessory sex glands in farm animals including the pelvic urethral muscle, retractor penile muscle, and bulbospongiousis muscle. The three accessory glands are the copwers (buldourethral), seminal vesicles, and prostate vagina for protection and prevents entry of bacteria into the submocosa of the vagina Page 2 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 1 (100 pts: Sept. 23, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and fill- in- the- blank 1) Please describe four different and specific functions of the uterus in most mammals (8 pts). a. b. c. Sperm transport by contraction of the myometrium to move sperm from the cervix to the utero- tubal junction of the oviduct and (or) enhancement of sperm capacitation. Regulation of the corpora lutea by the production of prostaglandinF2 α Implantation or attachment of embryos, which allows the pregnancy to be carried to term by providing the correct uterine environment for the embryo/fetuses to grow and develop. d. Parturition via contractions of the myometrium to help expel the fetus and eventually postpartum involution. 2) In farm and companion animals, in order to maintain fertile sperm in an ejaculate the testes are maintained outside the body cavity. Please answer the following questions about temperature regulation of the testes. a. How much cooler (°C) must the testes be compared to body temperature (1 pt)? 4- 6 b. Tissue layer populated with sweat glands allowing for evaporative cooling (1 pt)? Scrotal skin (scrotum) c. Smooth muscle that changes surface area of the answer for 2b (2 pts) tunica dartos d. Specific anatomical structure associated with spermatic cord that allows for counter- current heat exchange (4 pts). Briefly describe how this structure functions? Pampiniform plexus. The systems allows for cooling of warm arterial blood from the body into the testis and warming of cool venous blood going to the body. e. Skeletal muscle in spermatic cord that facilitates blood flow to the answer for question 2d (2 pts)? Cremaster f. Please define what is meant by the term unilateral cryptorchid (1 pt)? One testicle is retained inside the body cavity g. For the animal in the previous question, is this animal sterile or fertile (Please circle the correct choice)? Please explain you answer (3 pts) The animal is fertile because one testicle is outside the body cavity. Hence, viable sperm can still be produce because the temperature is below body temp in that particular testicle. (You needed to indicate that the temperature in testis was below body temp and this why sperm were viable.) Page 3 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 1 (100 pts: Sept. 23, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and fill- in- the- blank (cont.) 3) Please answer the following question as they relate to neural and endocrine control of reproduction. a. Name of the endocrine gland located in the ventral brain that surrounds the third ventricle, consist of pared nerve cell bodies, and releases neuropeptides (1 pt). Hypothalamus b. Please spell out the name the reproductive hormone that is part of the endocrine gland in question 3a and is secreted from the preoptic nucleus, (1 pt). Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone c. The hormone listed in question 3b stimulates the synthesis and secretion of two major reproductive hormones from the anterior pituitary. Please spell out the names the hormones and provide one physiological function for each hormone in the male and female (8 pts total). Hormone (2 pts each) Male Function (1 pt each) Female Function (1 pt each) Follicle Stimulating Hormone Spermatogenesis or sertoli cell function Follicle development, estradiol synthesis Luteinizing Hormone Testosterone production, leydig cell function Ovulation, follicle development, CL formation, progesterone production d. From anatomical and physiological perspectives, please explain how hormones produced by endocrine gland in question 3a stimulate release of hormones from the anterior pituitary (4 pts). The hypothalamus and anterior pituitary are not connected physically but they communicate by the Hypothalamic- hypophyseal- portal blood system, which allows hormones to be transported in the blood by the portal vessels from the capillary plexus in the hypothalamus to the capillary plexus in the anterior pituitary. e. Name the hypothalamic hormone synthesized and secreted from the paraventricular nucleus and indicate the section of the pituitary where it is stored and eventually secreted into the circulatory system (2 pts)? Oxytocin is secreted from the posterior pituitary f. Please explain how the hormone released from the paraventricular nucleus travels to the section of the pituitary provided as the answer to question 3e (2 pts). Oxytocin is secreted from the hypothalamus and travels down nerve axons that stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary. Page 4 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 1 (100 pts: Sept. 23, 2011) Name: _______________________________ g. Please provide two distinctly different physiological functions that the hormone listed as the answer to question 3e has on female reproduction (3 pts) Stimulates smooth muscle contractions in reproductive tract (uterus- myometrium), promotes uterine PGF2α secretion, and initiates milk ejection from mammary gland by binding to myoepithelial cells. 4) The strength of a hormone’s action on a target tissue is driven by several factors. Two of these factors are associated with the hormone itself and two are associated with receptor for the hormone. Please list the factors in the appropriate blanks below (4 pts). a. Hormone: pattern and duration of the hormone secretion and (or) half- life of the hormone b. Receptor: affinity (binding ability) and density (number) 5) Please answer the following questions as they relate to the anatomy and physiologically of the intact male dog. a. From a fertility standpoint, what is the primary function of testosterone on testes function (2 pts)? Stimulates and maintains spermatogenesis (It is important to indicate in some fashion that testosterone supports and (or) maintains spermatogenesis.) b. Why can the intact male dog develop an erection and ejaculate seminal fluid whereas the castrated male dog can’t (4 pts)? Please explain you answer. Testosterone is necessary for the development of the accessory sex glands. Without them the glands do not develop and there is no seminal fluid produced. Additionally, testosterone stimulates and maintains reproductive tract function so the dog can get an erection and ejaculate. c. What role does testosterone have on the phenotype of the intact male dog (2 pts)? Stimulates the 2° sex characteristics of the male (makes it look like a male), and enhances muscle development. (Need to have muscle development and male sex characteristics in answer to receive full credit.) Page 5 of 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course ANS 3319C taught by Professor Yelich during the Fall '07 term at University of Florida.

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