ANS3319Exam2_Fall_2011_V1Key

ANS3319Exam2_Fall_2011_V1Key - ANS 3319C Reproductive ...

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Unformatted text preview: ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 2 (100 pts: Oct. 21, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Please place the most appropriate word in each blank (1 pt each). 1) Puberty Age at fist behavioral estrus or ovulation is known as? 2) Menses/Mensuration Sloughing of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle in humans. 3) Meiosis Specific cellular process that results in genetic diversity in sperm cell division. 4) 19 to 23 Average length (in days) of the estrous cycle in the cow, mare, and sow. 5) X Of the two sex chromosomes, this chromosome has the greater DNA content. 6) Testosterone Steroid hormone essential for spermatogenesis. 7) Antibiotics In a semen extender, this compound helps prevent bacterial growth in the sample. 8) Y Chromosome that contains the testes determining factor gene. 9) Glycerol Specific cryoprotectant that prevents ice crystal formation in extended and frozen semen. 10) Amenorrhea Absence of the menstrual cycle in reproductive age women. 11) Bulbus glandis Anatomical structure in male dog associated with “the copulatory tie” during mating. 12) Flehman response Physical response that allows aspiration of fluids across vomeronasal glands 13) Menopause Period where normal ovarian function ceases to exist in women. 14) LH Anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates leydig cell function. 15) Estrogen Primary steroid hormone responsible for the sexual receptivity in female. 16) Bill Who was one of the most influential people in your life? 17) 28 days Average length (in days) of the menstrual cycle. 18) Mitosis Specific cellular process resulting in stem cell renewal and replacement of A1 spermatogonia. 19) Inhibin Protein hormone produced by testis that inhibits FSH secretion. 20) Midpiece Specific anatomical section of sperm cell where metabolic power plant is located. 21) Lipids In a semen extender, this compound helps maintain sperm cell membrane integrity. 22) Melatonin Hormone that enhances GnRH secretion during decreased light periods in sheep. 23) 14 Mean day of the menstrual cycle that ovulation occurs. 24) Phermones Compounds that attract males to females, found in urine & vaginal secretions. 25) Equine Species where clitoral eversion or “winking” is a sign of behavioral estrus. Please note: final exam grade was based as a percentage of 96 pts since the answers were accidently given for question 1 d on page 2. Page 1 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 2 (100 pts: Oct. 21, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and (or) fill- in- the- blank 1) Reproductive behavior in the male is composed several different types of behavior. Please answer the following questions as they relate to reproductive behavior in the male. a. Of the following behaviors, please circle the one that is not a precopulatory behavior (2 pt). Erection b. Sexual arousal Courtship Ejaculation Searching for sexual partner Of the following behaviors, please circle the one that is not a copulatory behavior (2 pt) Intromission c. Mounting Courtship Ejaculation Emission Of the following behaviors, please circle the one that is not a postcopulatory behavior (2 pt) Intromission d. Refractory period Memory Dismounting List the four primary sensory signals that can initiate reproductive behavior in males and females (4 pts). 1. Visual e. 2. Olfactory 3. Auditory 4. Tactile Circle the primary signal in question 1d used to detect a long range mating behaviors (2 pt). 2) Chronic heat stress is known to have a negative effect on fertility of intact male farm animals. Please answer the following questions as they relate to the motility, number, and morphology sperm in a semen sample collected at the end of a heat stress period that lasted for six weeks. a) What would most likely happen to sperm cell motility of the ejaculate (1 pt)? decreases b) What happens to the number of sperm found in the tail of the epididymis (1 pt)? decrease Please explain your answer as it relates to spermatogenesis (3 pts) Question 2b) Heat stress does not kill sperm but it inhibits spermatogenesis during late meiosis when the late primary spermatocyte is converted to a spermatid. Therefore, there is a significant decrease in sperm production. (Note: Must say something about the role of meiosis in decreased sperm production and its negative effect on spermatogenesis). c) What happens to the number of abnormal sperm in the ejaculate (1 pt)? increases Please explain your answer as it relates to maturation of the sperm cell (2 pts)? Question 2 c) Additionally, heat stress can lead to development of head and tail abnormalities, which suggest abnormal maturation of the sperm within the testes (differentiation) and epididymis (transit/maturation). Page 2 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 2 (100 pts: Oct. 21, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and (or) fill- in- the- blank (Cont.) 3) The figure below illustrates the phases of the estrous cycle and hormones produced during the estrous cycle. Please answer the following questions as they relate to the estrous cycle. Please spell out all answers. No abbreviations please or points will be deducted. A1 (Ovulation) B F A2 E D a. Phase of estrous cycle represented by shaded area depicted from A1 to B (1 pt)? Luteal phase 1. This phase consists of two specific stages, which stage is the longest of the two (1 pt)? Diestrus b. Phase of the estrous cycle represented by the area depicted from B to A2 (1 pt)? Follicle phase 1. This phase consists of two specific stages and they are (2 pts)? Proestrus and estrus c. What steroid hormone is depicted by the solid line F (2 pts)? progesterone 1. Name of the structure that synthesizes and secretes hormone depicted by line F (2 pts)? Corpus luteum d. What steroid hormone is depicted by the dotted line E (2 pts)? Estrogen 1. What behavioral event does this steroid hormone induce (1 pt)? Estrus or lordosis or standing heat 2. Hormone depicted by E has a positive feedback on the hypothalamus, which evntually initiates the surge of what pituitary hormone (1 pt)? Luteinizing Hormone 3. What ovarian event occurs because of the result described in the previous questions (1 pt)? ovulation 4. On the diagram, where does the event in the previous question occur (1 pt)? A1 or A2 e. In non- pregnant farm animal, what event is associated with the event depicted by D (2 pts)? luteolysis 1. Origin of the signal in farm animals responsible for event depicted by D (2 pts)? uterus 2. Name of the fatty acid derived hormone that initiates event D (2 pts)? Prostaglandin F2α 3. In humans, origin of the hormone that initiates the event in question 3e (1pt)? Ovary Page 3 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 2 (100 pts: Oct. 21, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and (or) fill- in- the- blank (Cont.) 4) You have four pens of prepubertal gilts that are all separated from each other by an empty pen. Pens A & B contain 3 gilts each, and Pens C & D contain 10 gilts each. Additionally, Pens A & C have had their nutrient intake restricted, which has slowed their growth rate; whereas, Pens B & D are receiving extra nutrition, which has increased their growth rate. Please answer the following questions as they relate to this scenario. a. For pens A, B and D, please indicate in the blanks provided, which pen of gilts would probably reach puberty first, second, and last? Please provide a detailed explanation for the sequence of rankings for each pen (9 pts)? Puberty: First D; Second B, Last A Pen D would be first because they are on a greater plane of nutrition, which hastens the onset of puberty. Additionally, there are more gilts pen D and an increased number of gilts in a pen would also hasten the onset of puberty. Pen B is second to D because Pen B has a decreased number of gilts in it even though it is on a greater plane of nutrition. However, Pen B will probably reach puberty earlier than A because Pen B has greater nutrition. Pen A is last because it has low nutrition and decreased number of gilts. b. The gilts in Pens A and C have received fence line exposure to a single intact boar for approximately 1 month prior to the start of breeding. Will this have any effect on when the gilts attain puberty? Would it make any difference if we placed the boar in the pen with the gilts? Please explain your answers (5 pts)? Exposure of prepubertal gilts to intact boars has been shown to hasten the onset of puberty regardless of the number of gilts in a pen. This action is due to the pheromones produced by the boar. Even though pens A & C are on limited nutrition it will probably still hasten the onset of puberty. It will not make any difference if we place the boar in the pen with gilts since pheromones are volatile and they travel through the air; hence, physical contact between the boar and gilts are not necessary. (Note: You must talk about pheromones being the overriding factor that hasten the onset of puberty and the fact that they are volatile (airborne) and no physical contact is needed) Page 4 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 2 (100 pts: Oct. 21, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and (or) fill- in- the- blank (Cont.) 5) Please fill in the blanks with the most appropriate term as it relates to male reproduction. a. Name of process consisting of movement of sperm and seminal fluid into pelvic urethra (2 pts). Emission. b. What hypothalamic derived hormone stimulates smooth muscle contractions of the epididymis and vas deferens to facilitate movement of sperm from epididymis to the pelvic urethra (2 pts)? Oxytocin c. During copulation, what two factors associated with the female reproductive tract stimulate the glans penis in order for ejaculation to occur after intromission (2 pts)? Temperature and pressure 6) The estrous cycle is a series of predictable reproductive events from one estrus to the next estrus in non- pregnant animals. Please answer the following questions as they relate to estrous cycles. a. An animal with clusters of estrous cycles that are dictated by day length are known as what type of estrous cycle? Provide two examples of animals that fit this category during increased day length (3 pts) Estrous cycle type: seasonally polyestrus Examples: horses, wild cats, b. An animal that has one estrous cycle per year has what type of estrous cycle? Please provide two examples of animals that fit this category (3 pts) Estrous cycle type: monoestrus Examples: dogs, wolves, fox, bear c. An animal that has a uniform and regular distribution of estrous cycles throughout the year has what type of estrous cycle? Please provide two examples of animals that fit this category (3 pts) Estrous cycle type: polyestrus Examples: cattle, swine, rodents, domestic cats 7) You have just collected semen from your favorite stallion Mr. Be My Baby Doll and the characteristics of the ejaculate are listed below. The semen needs to be extended so it can be shipped to California to breed Miss Skurupery’s high priced Quarter Horse mares. Please make the appropriate calculations asked for. Show all calculations to receive full credit. • • Volume of gel free semen collected = 100 ml Sperm concentration per mL = 50 × 106 / ml • Gross Motility of ejaculate = 60% • Final concentration of an insemination dose = 500 × 106 a. What is the total number of motile sperm cells in the ejaculate (2 pts)? = (50 × 106/ ml) * 100 ml) * .60 = 3.0 × 109 motile sperm cells b. How many insemination doses can we get out of this ejaculate (2 pts)? Page 5 of 5 = (2.8 × 109 motile sperm cells) ÷ 500 × 106 = 6 doses ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course ANS 3319C taught by Professor Yelich during the Fall '07 term at University of Florida.

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