ANS3319Exam2_SP2011 - ANS 3319C Reproductive ...

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Unformatted text preview: ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 2 (100 pts: Mar. 16, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Please match each numbered phrase with the most appropriate answer by placing the letter in the correct blank. Answers can only be used once (1 pt each). 1) ____ Age at fist behavioral estrus and (or) ovulation is known as? A) 6 2) ____ A maximum amount of time in minutes that a “copulatory tie” in dogs could last. B) Melatonin 3) ____ Queen, Llama, and alpaca are known as __________ovulators. C) Inhibin 4) ____ Length (in days) of the estrous cycle in the cow, mare, and sow. D) Flehman response 5) ____ Of the two sex chromosomes, this chromosome has the greater DNA content. E) Testosterone 6) ____ Primary steroid hormone responsible for the sexual drive in male. F) Swine 7) ____ Specific location in testes where spermatogenesis occurs. G) Electroejaculator 8) ____ Chromosome that contains the testes determining factor gene. H) X- Chromosome 9) ____ Nutritional anestrous is due to the absence of what hypothalamic hormone? I) GnRH 10) ____ Absence of the menstrual cycle in reproductive age women. J) Y Chromosome 11) ____ Anatomical structure in male dog associated with “the tie” during mating. K) Mitochondrial helix 12) ____ Physical response that allows aspiration of fluids across vomeronasal glands L) Nitric oxide 13) ____ Period where normal ovarian function ceases to exist in women. M) Sponatneous 14) ____ The hand- cone procedure is used to collect semen in what species? N) 45 15) ____ Primary steroid hormone responsible for the sexual receptivity in female. O) Seminiferous tubules 16) ____ Cows, horses, humans, and pigs are known as _________ ovulators. P) Bulbus glandis 17) ____ Period without regular estrous cycles frequently observed in animals. Q) Induced 18) ____ Length of the estrous cycle in months in the dog R) Canine 19) ____ Hormone produced by testis that inhibits FSH secretion. S) Acrosomal cap 20) ____ Location of the metabolic power plant of sperm cell. T) Puberty 21) ____ The handglove procedure is used to collect semen in what species? U) Anestrus 22) ____ Hormone that enhances GnRH secretion during decreased light periods in sheep. V) Amenorrhea 23) ____ Procedure was used in lab to collect semen from the bull. W) 21 24) ____ Compound that leads to vasodilation of penis, which leads to an erection X) Estrogen 25) ____ Location of sperm cell enzymes that digest the zona during fertilization. Y) Menopause Page 1 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 2 (100 pts: Mar. 16, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and fill- in- the- blank 1) Reproductive behavior in the female is composed general behaviors that are common across several species. Please answer the following questions as they relate to reproductive behavior in the female. a. Of the following behaviors, please circle the one that is not a typical searching behavior (1 pt). Vocalization b. Roaming Tail elevation Immobile stance Restlessness Of the following behaviors, please circle the one that is not a typical courtship behavior (1 pt) Roaming c. Immobile stance rubbing and rolling Urination in presence of male Of the following behaviors, please circle the one that is not a typical consummation behavior (1 pt) Intromission d. Searching for mate Lordosis Presenting hindquarters to male List the four primary sensory signals that can initiate reproductive behavior in males and females (4 pts). 1. ________________ 2. ________________ 3. ________________ 4. ________________ e. Of the sensory signals listed in question 1d, which is primarily used for a short range investigative behavior and what compounds are typically being detected for (2pts) __________________________________ f. Of the sensory signals listed in question 1d, which is primarily used for long range investigative behavior (1 pt)? ______________________ 2) The figure below illustrates hormones, significant events, and phases of the menstrual cycle. Please answer the following questions as they relate to this figure. Please spell out all answers to receive full credit. C A B a. What significant physiological event occurs on day 14 of the menstrual cycle (1 pt)? _______________________ b. What body measurement can be taken to determine if the event in 2a is close to occurring (2 pt)?____________ c. What two hormones, labeled A & B, surge prior to the answer for question 2a (2 pt)? ______________________ d. What is the name of the phase of the cycle from day 0 to 14 (1 pt)? ___________________________ e. What is the name of the phase of the cycle from day 14 to 21 (1 pt)? __________________________ f. What event is approximately 2- 5 days long and occurs every 28 days (2 pt) _____________________ g. Relative to the endometrial thickness what is the name of the phase from day 0 to 14 (1 pt)? ________________ h. Relative to the endometrial thickness what is the name of the phase from day 14 to 28 (1 pt)? _______________ i. Event that occurs approximately day 26 to 28 in non- pregnant female, indicated by line C (1 pt)? _____________ j. What is the steroid hormone indicated by line C (1 pt)? _________________ k. What is the primary function of the steroid hormone indicated by line C (2 pts)? Page 2 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 2 (100 pts: Mar. 16, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and fill- in- the- blank (Cont.) 3) The figure below illustrates hormones, significant events, and phases of the estrous cycle in most farm animals. Please answer the following questions as they relate to this figure. Please spell out all answers to receive full credit. A1 B1 (estrus) A2 C B2 E D a. Phase of the estrous cycle represented by the area depicted from A1 to B1 (1 pt)? ________________________ 1. This phase also consists of two specific stages, what are they (2 pt)? ________________________________ 2. Dominant steroid hormone produced during the period from A1 to B1 (1 pt)? ________________________ 3. Ovarian structure that secretes hormone listed in previous question (1 pt)? __________________________ 4. Mean number of days a mare is in estrus (event B1) (1 pt)? _______________________________________ 5. Please provide four different signals suggesting that a mare is in estrus (4 pts)? 6. Names of the hypothalamic and anterior pituitary hormones that the hormone in question 3.a.2 stimulates a surge in (2 pts)? _______________________________________________________ 7. Event that occurs shortly after event B1 and is initiated by hormones in question 3.a.4. (1 pt)? ___________ b. Phase of the estrous cycle represented by the area depicted from B1 to A2 (1 pt)? ________________________ 1. This phase also consists of two specific stages, what are they (2 pt)? _________________________________ 2. Predominate steroid hormone produced during the period defined by B1 to A2 (1 pt)? __________________ 3. Ovarian structure that secretes hormone depicted by line C (1 pt)? __________________________________ c. In the non- pregnant animal, what event is depicted by D (2 pt)? _______________________________________ 1. What lipid derived hormone is responsible for event D (1 pt)? ______________________________________ 2. Origin of the signal responsible for event depicted in D in cow, ewe, and sow (1 pt)? ____________________ Page 3 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 2 (100 pts: Mar. 16, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer 4) The testes contain the machinery that produces a constant supply of sperm cells for the male. Please answer the following questions as they apply to spermatogenesis. a. Steroid hormone necessary in high concentrations for spermatogenesis (2 pt)? _________________________ b. Specific cellular process that leads to genetic diversity of sperm cells (2 pt)? ___________________________ c. Specific name of differentiation process where sperm head & tail develop (1 pt)? _______________________ d. In what compartment of the seminiferous tubule does the event in question 4c occur (1 pt)? _______________ e. The figure below depicts motility of ejaculates collected from two bulls over a period of 16 weeks. Bull A is represented by circles and was maintained at 23°C for 16 weeks (No heat stress). Bull B is represented by triangles and was heat stressed for 8 weeks at 31°C for 8 h and 35°C for 16 h of each 24 hour day. At week eight, the heat stressed bull (Bull B) was maintained at 23°C for 8 weeks. Please answer the following questions as they relate to this scenario. Motile Sperm (%) f. For Bull A, what would happen to the sperm concentration during the 16 week treatment period, would it increase, decrease, or remain unchanged (1 pt). _________________________________ g. For Bull B, what would happen to the total sperm abnormalities by the end of the 8th week of heat stress, would they increase, decrease, or remain unchanged (1 pt). ________________________________ h. By week 4 of the heat stress period for Bull B, what do you think would happen to the future developmental capacity of embryos in cows that had been mated to Bull B during week 4? Would the ability of the embryo to develop increase, decrease, or remain unchanged (4 pts)? Please explain your answer. Page 4 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 2 (100 pts: Mar. 16, 2011) i. Name: _______________________________ For Bull B what would happen to the concentration of sperm collected during week 8 of the treatment period, would it increase, decrease, or remain unchanged (3 pts). Please explain your answer. 5) Please fill in the blanks or circle the most appropriate term (1/2 pt each; 9 total pts). When collecting semen for an artificial insemination (AI) program, the collection device of choice for the bull, ram, and stallion is the ____________________. While the semen is being collected, the _________ is filtered out in the ______________ and ____________________ so the semen does not coagulate and can be easily extended. After the semen is collected, the semen is _______________________ evaluated for contaminates and the _______________, _______________, and _______________________ are recorded so the semen can be extended properly. You could also evaluate ______________________ to determine if there are any sperm abnormalities that could have a negative effect on subsequent fertility. Typically we want the total abnormalities to be no greater than _______%. The next step is to extend the semen, which functions to (increase : decrease) the number of insemination doses and (increase : decrease) the shelf- life of the semen. Extenders contain _____________ to prevent drastic changes in pH, a ____________________ to protect against ice crystal formation within the sperm, ______________ substrates to maintain sperm viability, ____________________ to maintain sperm cell membrane integrity, and ____________ to prevent bacterial growth in the sample. 6) You have just collected semen from your favorite stallion Mr. Giggles and the characteristics of the ejaculate are listed below. The semen needs to be extended so it can be shipped to California to breed Miss Byers high priced Quarter Horse mares. Please make the appropriate calculations asked for. Show all calculations to receive full credit. • • a. Volume of gel free semen collected = 50 ml Sperm concentration per mL = 70 × 106 / ml • Gross Motility of ejaculate = 80% • Final concentration of an insemination dose = 500 × 106 What is the total number of motile sperm cells in the ejaculate (2 pts)? b. How many insemination doses can we get out of this ejaculate (2 pts)? Page 5 of 5 ...
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