ANS3319Exam3_Spring_2011

ANS3319Exam3_Spring_2011 - ANS 3319C Reproductive ...

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Unformatted text preview: ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 3 (100 pts: April 8, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Please match each numbered phrase with the most appropriate answer by placing the letter in the correct blank. Answers can only be used once (1 pt each). 1) ____ Fluid filled protective sac surrounding fetus. A) eCG 2) ____ Protein produced by placenta and basis for early pregnancy test in ruminants. B) Foramen ovale 3) ____ Cells of a blastocyst that develop into the chorion of the placenta. C) Oxytocin 4) ____ Reaction that allows sperm cell to digest zona pellucida. D) Diffusion 5) ____ Process of biochemical changes that occur to sperm that infer fertility on sperm. E) Allantois 6) ____ Fetal shunt that directs blood away from the fetal lungs to the descending aorta. F) Decreases 7) ____ Ovarian hormone that stimulates the preovulatory surge of LH? G) Fructose 8) ____ Reproductive structure that produces the luteolytic signal in farm animals. H) Ductus venosus 9) ____ Protein produced by placenta and basis for early pregnancy testing in humans. I) Trophoblasts 10) ____ Mechanism by which glucose is transferred across the placenta to the fetus J) Estrogen 11) ____ Membrane that carries blood vessels to the outer most placental membrane. K) Amnion 12) ____ Thought to be the origin of the luteolytic signal in humans. L) Cortical 13) ____ Estrogen _____________ blood flow to the reproductive tract during estrus. M) Testis Determining Factor 14) ____ Name of the shunt between the right and left atrium in the fetal heart. N) PAGS 15) ____ Reproductive structure that serves as both a barrier and reservoir for sperm. O) Capacitation 16) ____ Progesterone _________ myometrial contractility during embryo development. P) Glucose 17) ____ Primary carbohydrate that is found in plaques on umbilical cord. Q) Cervix 18) ____ Mechanism by which amino acids are transferred across the placenta to fetus R) Active transport 19) ____ Sexual differentiation is controlled by a gene on the Y- chromosome called the? S) hCG 20) ____ Membrane that attaches to uterus and allows for nutrient/gas exchange. T) Ductus arteriosus 21) ____ Biochemical reaction that initiates the zona block and prevents polyspermy. U) Uterus 22) ____ Protein secreted by CL & involved in luteolysis in ruminants. V) Ovary 23) ____ Protein that stimulates the development of accessory CL in the mare. W) Acrosomal 24) ____ Primary carbohydrate that composes ½ of fetal diet during gestation. X) Increases 25) ____ Fetal shunt that directs blood away from the fetal liver. Y) Chorion Page 1 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 3 (100 pts: April 8, 2011) Name: _______________________________ True or False. Circle the correct answer. If a phase or word is underlined it is the central focus of the statement and cannot be changed to make the statement true. If you answered a question false you must provide a brief but specific statement that would correct the statement to receive credit (4 pts each). 1) T F The three germ cell layers associated with the early developing embryo include the mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm. 2) T F The actions of progesterone on the hypothalamus are to enhance basal GnRH secretion, stimulate the preovulatory LH surge, and enhance behavioral estrus. T F Primary function of the placenta is to provide a metabolic interface between conceptus and dam to permit physiologic exchange of gasses & nutrients. T F Antibodies do not cross the placental membranes in cattle, horses, cats, and dogs. Consequently, newborns get antibodies via colostrum. In contrast, antibodies do cross the placental membranes in humans and rodents. T F The primary difference between induced ovulators like camelids is that they require a tactile stimulation of the vagina to initiate ovulation; whereas, modified induced ovulators like rabbits and felids require tactile stimulation of the vagina in addition to inducing factors found in seminal plasma, which are possibly more important than the tactile stimulation. T F The placenta has four major physiological functions that are similar to several organ systems in the postnatal adult, which include the GI tract, kidney, lungs, and endocrine system. T F Early embryonic ducts that eventually develop into the male reproductive tract are the paramesonephric ducts: whereas, the early embryonic ducts that eventually develop into female reproductive tract are the mesonephric ducts. 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Page 2 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 3 (100 pts: April 8, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and fill- in- the- blank: Section 1. 1) The figure below illustrates the follicle development patterns and hormone profiles that occur during the estrous cycle. Please answer the following questions as they relate to this diagram. Abbreviations are allowed for hormones only. Please spell out all other words. Y X Z 0 a. What ovarian event is indicated by the letter “Z” (2 pts)? ____________________________________________ b. Primary pituitary hormone responsible for ovarian event “Z” (2 pts)? __________________________________ c. What behavioral event is associated with ovarian event “Z” (2 pts)? ___________________________________ d. Steroid hormone that is increasing and secreted by follicles labeled “S” (2 pts)? __________________________ e. List the four stages of follicle development in the sequential order that they occur in a follicle wave (5 pts)? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ f. During what specific stage of follicle development is inhibin high and what is inhibin’s function (3 pts)? g. If you wanted to ovulate the second wave dominant follicle, what lipid derived hormone would you administer on day 12 of the estrous cycle (2 pts)? ___________________________________ h. Ovarian steroid hormone produced by the line depicted by the letter “X” (2 pts) _________________________ i. As follicle development transitions from the first to the second wave, what is the endocrine mechanism that initiates the turnover of the first follicle wave? Please be specific in your answer (3 pts). Page 3 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 3 (100 pts: April 8, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and fill- in- the- blank: Section 2. 1) Please fill in the table with the correct terms requested for each animal. Additionally, circle all animals that have an invasive placenta, place an “X” by all animals that have a semi- invasive placenta, and put a star («༊ ) by all animals that have an attached placenta (12 pts). Chorionic villous pattern Maternal separation pattern Pregnancy recognition factor Gestation Length (days) Pig Mare Cow Dog Cat Human Animal 2) The table below depicts fetal development in sheep fed two levels of nutrition starting on day 30 of gestation. Low nutrition is 40% below the calculated requirements for pregnant ewes. High nutrition is 40% above the calculated requirements for pregnant ewes. The ewes were carrying either a single fetus (Single) or ≥ 2 fetuses (Multiple). All ewes’ were in good body condition on day 70 of gestation and therefore had extra body energy reserves. Individual fetal weighs, kg Day of gestation fetal weights were taken Single–High Single- Low Multiple- High Multiple- Low 70 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 100 1.25 1.25 1.18 1.18 120 3.63 3.63 3.36 3.36 140 6.72 5.70 5.67 5.15 a. Why are the fetal weights similar on day 70 of gestation for the Single- High and Multiple- Low even though the level of nutrition and number of fetuses are different between the two groups since day 30 of gestation (4 pts)? Please explain your answer from both a fetal and maternal perspective. Page 4 of 5 ANS 3319C Reproductive Physiology & Endocrinology in Domestic Animals Exam 3 (100 pts: April 8, 2011) Name: _______________________________ Short answer and fill- in- the- blank: Section 2 (cont.) b. There is a significant increase in fetal weights of all four groups from day 70 to 100 of gestation. What single physiological/anatomical event could explain the increase? Justify your answer (4 pts). c. On day 120 of gestation, why are fetal weights for the Multiple- High and Multiple- Low similar, even though the Multiple- Low group has been on restricted nutrition for 90 days (4 pts)? d. What do you think would happen to the weight of the fetus in the Single- High group if ambient temperature remained above 95°F for approximately 18 hours of a 24 hour day from day 100 to 140 of gestation? Would the fetal weight on day 140 be the same, increase, or decrease? Please explain your answer (4 pts). Short answer: Section 3. 1) You are a young scientist who wants to develop an effective birth control method for women that does not involve steroids like those used in “The Pill”. Your goal is to immunize women so that fertilization of the oocyte does not occur. Therefore, what would be a specific target associated with the oocyte that you would focus your research efforts on? Please explain your answer (3 pts). P lease place your answer on the back of this page!! Page 5 of 5 ...
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