Geog Exam 1 Review - Geography Test#1 Review(Chapter...

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Geography Test #1 Review (Chapter One (About 10 Questions on Test): Geography: - Cultural Geography: o Those of the human endeavor, referred to as human geography - Physical Geography: o Natural in origin, referred to as environmental geography Earth’s (4) Environmental Spheres: - Lithosphere: o Comprising the rocks of Earth’s crust as well as the broken and unconsolidated particles of material matter that overlie the solid bedrock - Atmosphere: o The gaseous envelope of air that surrounds earth, it contains the complex mixture of gasses needed to sustain life - Hydrosphere: o Comprises water in all its forms - Biosphere: o Encompasses all the parts of Earth where living organisms can exist; in its broadest and loosest sense, the vast variety of earthly life forms Types of Planets: - Terrestrial Planets: o Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars o Smaller, denser, less oblate (more nearly spherical) o Rotate more slowly on their axes o Are composed principally of mineral matter, and except for airless Mercury, have diverse but relatively shallow atmospheres - Jovian Planets: o Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune o Larger, more massive (although they are less dense) much more oblate, and they rotate more rapidly o Are mostly composed of gases such as hydrogen and helium, as well as ices of compounds such as methane and ammonia o Generally have atmospheres that are dense, turbulent, and relatively deep Solar System: - Sun with objects pulled in by gravity o Sun: Medium sized star, 99.8% of mass in solar system o Planets o Anything else pulled In by Sun’s gravity Graticule: - The grid of intersecting lines, especially of latitude and longitude on which a map is drawn Latitude: - A description of location expressed as an angle north or south of the equator - Parallel:
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Geography Test #1 Review o A line connecting all points of the same latitude - Important lines of latitude: o Equator, 0 degrees o Tropic of Cancer, 23.5 N o Tropic of Capricorn, 23.5 S o Arctic Circle, 66.5 N o Antarctic Circle, 66.5 S o North Pole, 90 N o South Pole, 90 S Longitude: - An angular description of east and west location - Meridians: o Line extending from pole to pole and crossing all parallels at right angles o Not parallel to one another - Important lines of longitude: o Prime Meridian, 0 degrees (Greenwich, England) o 180 th Meridian, 180 degrees either way Latitudinal Zones: - Low latitude o Generally between the equator and 30 N and S - Mid latitude o Between about 30 and 60 N and S - High latitude o Latitudes greater than about 60 N and S - Equatorial o Within a few degrees of the equator - Tropical o Within the tropics (between 23.5 N and 23.5 S) - Subtropical o Slightly poleward of the tropics, generally around 25-30 N and S - Polar o Within a few degrees of the North or South Pole Earth Movements: - Revolves around the Sun (365.25 days known as the tropical year) - Perihelion (January) o Earth and Sun are closest to each other - Aphelion (July 4 th ) o Earth and Sun are furthest from each other - Rotation on its axis o Counterclockwise direction, sun and stars rise in east and set in west Inclination of Earth’s Axis: - Axis is tilted about 23.5 degrees away from the perpendicular, and maintains this tilt
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