23 World At War lecture

23 World At War lecture - World Wars CausesofWorldWar1 1....

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World Wars
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Causes of World War 1 1. Competition between countries to get colonies and more European territory 2. Weakening of the Austrian Empire and Ottoman Empire led to chaos 3. Desire of oppressed peoples to have their own countries 4. Alliances between nations 5. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
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Colonial Competition  Some countries felt left  out Asia Opium wars Boxer rebellion Africa European colonies Rules of colonization  made
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Dissolution of Empires ― Austria-Hungary
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Balkan Chaos
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Alliances and Strategies The goals of each of the alliance members Britain – maintain continental balance and UK  sea superiority France – confine Germany, get Alsace-Lorraine Russia – expand into southern Europe   Germany – solidify German-speaking peoples  and never fight on two fronts Austria – hold everything together Italy – try to solidify your own territory Ottoman Turks – survive
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War Plans Germany (Schlieffen Plan) Attack and destroy France in 6 weeks Maximum troops dedicated to French attack Surprise attack through neutral Belgium Encircle Paris Confront Russia after France is subdued French (Plan 17) Attack Germany with maximum troops through Alsace-Lorraine
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Outbreak of War Balkan trigger War (domino effect) Austria blames Serbia and issues  an ultimatum Serbia accepts most points but not  all Germany issues “blank check” Russia backs Serbia (unified slav  people) France and England confirm  Belgium neutrality Germany attacks France through  Belgium Archduke Ferdinand  on day of  assassination
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Failure of the Plans German attack  in the West French attack in  Alsace-Lorraine Russian speed  of mobilization German gap and  closure without  encircling Paris The “Miracle of  the Marne”
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Miracle of the Marne France leaders recognize that their troops will be encircled if they persist in Plan 17 France uses trains to get troops to Paris Paris taxis shuttle troops and equipment to the front France stalls the German advance
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Conduct of War Each side attempts to  outflank the other and  this extends the line  to the English  Channel Stagnation and trench  warfare in the West
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Trench Warfare From Erich Remarque's  All Quiet on the  Western Front "We see men living with their skulls blown open;  we see soldiers run with their two feet cut off… Still  the little piece of convulsed earth in which we lie is  held. We have yielded no more than a few hundred  yards of it as a prize to the enemy. But on every  yard there lies a dead man."
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Discussion
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23 World At War lecture - World Wars CausesofWorldWar1 1....

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