18 Nation, crusades and mongols - BYU

18 Nation, crusades and mongols - BYU - Nations, Crusades,...

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Nations, Crusades, and Mongols Creativity Rekindled
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Transition Dark Ages Middle Ages 1000 AD
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Why did the changes occur? External elements (like weather  and social stability) bring more  food More food brings population  increase  Population increase brings  diversity Diversity brings creativity Creativity brings progress Progress requires more creativity  Spiral of Progress
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1000 AD Climate changes Note: Colors are data by different researchers
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Changes Agriculture innovations (some borrowed) Curved metal plow Horse instead of ox Horse collar Three field system Old New
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Changes More food meant increased  population  Rise of towns  Specialized labor—artisans Guilds Control of trade (Hanseatic  League)  Technology and science  (agriculture and industry) Water wheels Windmills
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Changes Quantifications of life Dark ages had no precise time or distance  measurements (canonical hours, foot) Triangulation  (needed for land ownership) Standardized money  (needed for trade) Statistics  (for manufacturing) Trial of the pyx (box with minted coins) Number system  (needed for business) Fibonacci, Arabic/Indian number system Beginning of modern accounting systems Interest calculations Conversions of weights and measures
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Emergence of Nations: Conflicts between church and state France Germany England vs
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France: State Capetian dynasty Hugh Capet  became king (about  1000 AD) Beginning of the  French nation Previously it was  part of the  Carolingian realm  and was linked to  Germany and Italy Ile de France Hugh Capet’s  territory
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France in 1300 Stable succession for  300 years Always a father to son  transfer Dynastic strength Stable in church  relations France was the most  “Catholic” nation France was divided but  gradually consolidating
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Germany – 1000 AD Otto the Great United lords in  Germany and Italy Crowned as 2nd Holy  Roman Emperor Assumed the traditional  role of approving the  election of a pope Conflict with pope over  Papal States
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Germany Church vs. State clash (1084-1105)  Henry IV Pope Gregory VII
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Henry’s position Young man recently elected Holy Roman Emperor Wanted to demonstrate his power to control the church within the Holy Roman Empire Asserted his emperor’s right of naming Bishops within the empire
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Gregory’s position Newly elected as a pope Strongly involved in the movement to reform the church
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This note was uploaded on 11/23/2011 for the course MFG 201 taught by Professor Terry,r during the Spring '08 term at BYU.

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18 Nation, crusades and mongols - BYU - Nations, Crusades,...

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