113lecture0206

113lecture0206 - BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 2:...

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BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 2: Chemical Principles - Bond types, reactions, organic compounds The discipline of microbiology addresses the biology of a diverse group of organisms - All of these share the feature of lacking tissue organization (Tortora et al., Figure 1.1) = The bacteria are prokaryotes ; that is, their genetic material is not enclosed in a nucleus; most bacteria possess a cell wall containing peptidoglycan = The archaea are a second group of prokaryotes; none of these are parasites of humans = Fungi are simple eukaryotes that obtain nutrition by absorption of dissolved nutrients from their environment = Protozoans are unicellular eukaryotes classified according to their means of locomotion = Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotic microorganisms = Viruses are unique in being noncellular ; structurally, they consist of a nucleic acid genome encased in a capsid consisting of protein and (sometimes) lipid. Viral reproduction depends on the metabolism of an infected cell. Thus, all viruses are parasites - Note that size is not the common feature; there are many macroscopic fungi and certain marine algae (e.g., kelps) are among the largest known organisms. - Because of their medical importance as agents of infection, certain multicellular helminthes e.g., flatworms, roundworms) are included in the study of microbiology. These organisms are not microorganisms in the strict sense, since they do possess organized tissues. Fundamental properties of matter - Organization of atoms (Tortora et al. Fig 2.1) = Protons, neutrons, electrons = In uncharged atoms, electrons balance protons = Electrons are organized into orbitals ; the reactivity of an atom often depends on distribution of electrons in "outer shells" - Elements = All atoms of an element contain the same number of protons, which gives the
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This note was uploaded on 11/24/2011 for the course BIO 113 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

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113lecture0206 - BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 2:...

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