113lecture0306slides

113lecture0306slides - ester linkage Simple Lipids...

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Microbiology - Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Generalized Structure of Macromolecules • Polysaccharides, polypeptides (proteins), and nucleic acids are polymers assembled by covalent linkage of characteristic monomers • Monomers are typically joined together by dehydration synthesis , and broken apart by hydrolysis Carbohydrates General formula (CH 2 0) n • Polar compounds, with multiple hydroxyl groups • Numerous functions in cells • Monomers are simple sugars of 3-7 carbons Disaccharides are two sugars linked by a glycosidic bond . • Sucrose • Lactose Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrates • Glycogen - major energy storage of animals • Starch • Cellulose
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Lipids • Characterized by an abundance of nonpolar covalent bonds (making them poorly soluble in water) • Important component of cellular membranes • Also used as energy stores and signalling molecules Simple Lipids - Triglycerides • Covalent attachment of a fatty acid to glycerol • Dehydration synthesis produces an
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Unformatted text preview: ester linkage Simple Lipids - Triglycerides • Triglycerides- oils and fats - are assembled from three fatty acids and glycerol • A fat is unsaturated if there are double bonds in the hydrocarbon chains Phospholipids Steroids Proteins • Contain C, H, O, N and S, constitute 50% or more of a cell’s dry weight • Tremendous variety of function – Structural (e.g., collagen) – Enzymes – Transporter proteins – Receptors • Polymers of amino acids Structure of an Amino Acid Amino acids found in proteins Amino acids found in proteins Peptide Bond formation Primary and Secondary structure of proteins Tertiary and Quaternary structure of proteins Nucleic Acids are polymers of Nucleotides • Nitrogenous base – Pyridimines cytosine, uracil (RNA only), thymine (DNA only) – Purines adenine and guanine • Pentose sugar- Ribose for RNA nucleotides, deoxyribose for DNA nucleotides • Phosphate ATP is a nucleotide Structure of DNA...
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This note was uploaded on 11/24/2011 for the course BIO 113 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

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113lecture0306slides - ester linkage Simple Lipids...

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