113lecture1206

113lecture1206 - BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 12:...

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BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 12: Microbial Genetics - RNA and protein synthesis, the genetic code Transcription can be defined as the synthesis of a complementary strand of RNA from a DNA template (Tortora Fig 8.8) - There are three kinds of RNA is cells. In order of abundance, these are = ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is an important structural and functional component of ribosomes, the site of protein synthesis = transfer RNA (tRNA) is the "adapter" molecule that links nucleotide base sequence to amino acid sequence = messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes proteins - Although we tend to think of mRNAs in discussing transcription (since they then go on to be translated), synthesis of rRNAs and tRNAs occurs by the same mechanism - Synthesis of RNA by transcription is very similar to leading strand synthesis of DNA during replication = Free ribonucleotides are added to a growing strand in a 5' to 3' direction = The identity of the nucleotides added is determined by base pairing with nucleotides in the DNA template strand = In RNA synthesis, uracil is added to a growing strand to pair with adenine, rather than thymine, which pairs with adenine in DNA
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113lecture1206 - BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 12:...

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