113lecture1906 - BIOLOGY 113 MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 19...

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BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 19: Viruses - Effects of viruses on host cells, viruses and cancer Virus infection may be a factor in development of cancers, although it is important to note that virus infection is not thought to play a significant role in devolopment of most human cancers - Cancers develop when cells are "released" (usually through a mutation of some sort) from the normal controls on their proliferation, and enter a state of continuous cell division - Death from cancer is usually due to metastasis, or spread of the malignant cells from the tissue in which they arose - An association between viral infection and cancer was first demonstrated for Rous sarcoma, a malignancy affecting connective tissue of chickens (note that tumors, both malignant and benign, are named by attaching the suffix "-oma" to the type of tissue affected) - Malignant transformation of normal cells has been linked to abnormal expression of oncogenes = Oncogenes have been identified in the chromosomes of a variety of eucaryotic cell types as well as in the genomes of oncogenic viruses = It is assumed that the oncogenes in cells are mutant forms of normal genes, sometimes referred to as proto-oncogenes = The most common oncogenes encode synthesis of protein kinases · Protein kinases catalyze attachment of phosphate groups (obtained from ATP) to other proteins, modifying the function of the target protein
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