113lecture2406 - BIOLOGY 113 MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 24...

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BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 24: Specific Host Defenses - Types of acquired immunity, the nature of antibodies, humoral immunity Acquired immunity refers to resistance against a specific pathogen or its products that is developed by a host organism (Tortora et al. Figure 17.1) - Immunity maybe acquired either either actively or passively = Immunity is acquired actively when an organism, exposed to particular antigens, responds by stimulating specialized lymphocytes and antibody proteins = Immunity is acquired passively if an organism acquires the antibodies without exposure to the antigens - Naturally acquired active immunity is obtained by natural exposure to antigens, which provokes an immune response and production of antibodies = Naturally acquired immunity is life-long for some diseases, short-lived for others = Although we usually associate such immunity with recovery from infectious disease, active immunity can also be naturally acquired from subclinical (inapparent) infections - Naturally acquired passive immunity refers to vertical transmission of antibodies = Some antibodies will pass across the placenta, and can thus be acquired by a developing fetus = Colostrum also contains some antibodies, which may protect an infant from some gastrointestinal pathogens = Passive immunity lasts only as long as the antibodies remain active, which is usually a few months (but those are a critical few months!) - Artificially acquired active immunity is what is sought from vaccination = A vaccine is a preparation of microorganisms or their products (e.g., toxins) that have lost their pathogenicity but still serve as antigens to stimulate an active immune response = Vaccines may be killed microorganisms, attenuated (weakened) microorganisms or inactivated toxins ( toxoids) - Artificially acquired passive immunity can be provided by administration of antibodies = The antibodies are taken from a person or animal that has acquired (naturally or artificially) immunity to a particular antigen =
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