113lecture2606 - BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 26:...

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BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 26: Applications of Immunology - Vaccines, diagnostic immunology A vaccine is a preparation of microorganisms (or some part of product of them) that will induce an immune response when injected into a host - The practice of vaccination (like many medical practices) predates our understanding of the process = Many cultures afflicted with smallpox adopted the practice of intentionally exposing themselves to material from smallpox lesions · If successful, this led to a mild infection followed by immunity · If unsuccessful, it could lead to severe infection and even death = In the 18th century, Edward Jenner established a safer method for vaccination against smallpox · Jenner observed that persons that had been exposed to cowpox, which causes a mild infection in humans, exhibited immunity to smallpox · Jenner began deliberately exposing patients to material from (what was thought to be) cowpox lesions in the first controlled vaccination trials · Eventually, these efforts led to one of the greatest public health victories in history: complete elimination of smallpox from human populations - Vaccines are critically important for control of infectious diseases for which other preventative efforts and/or antimicrobial drugs are inadequate; this is especially the case for infectious diseases caused by viruses - The goal of vaccination efforts is to provide herd immunity to a population so that, if an outbreak should occur, an epidemic cannot develop because there are not enough susceptible hosts - Vaccines may be of several types, depending on the targeted pathogen = Inactivated vaccines are preparations of killed microorganisms; the original Salk polio vaccine was an inactivated vaccine = Attenuated
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This note was uploaded on 11/24/2011 for the course BIO 113 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

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113lecture2606 - BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 26:...

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