113lecture2806 - BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 28:...

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BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 28: Antimicrobial Drugs - Mechanisms of action, antibacterial drugs, antiviral and antifungal drugs Antimicrobial drugs are chemotherapeutic agents used to selectively interfere with the growth of microorganisms - The "ideal" antimicrobial drug kills the pathogenic microorganism without harming the host - Many antimicrobial drugs are antibiotics , natural compounds produced by microorganisms; others are synthetic compounds - Antimicrobial drugs were sought from the time when the microbial basis of infectious diseases was known = Paul Erlich coined the term, and was responsible for development of heavy metal salts for treatment of syphillis = The first synthetic compounds used as antimicrobial drugs were the sulfanilamides , or "sufla drugs", which are still used today - In 1928, Alexander Fleming revealed that the fungus Penicillium notatum was able to inhibit growth of surrounding colonies of Staphylococcus aureus (Tortora et al., Figure 20.1) = The compound responsible for this effect was eventually isolated as penicillin = Penicillin was the first antibiotic = Since that time, a variety of antibiotics, produced by a variety of genera of fungi and bacteria, have been discovered (Tortora et al., Table 20.1) = The majority of antibiotics in clinical use are produced by species of Streptomyces , which is a filamentous bacterium - Finding an effective antimicrobial drug for a particular infection often depends on the identity of the pathogen = Since there are so many differences between the biology of eucaryotes and procaryotes, there are a variety of drugs that are useful against bacterial infections = Infections caused by fungi and protozoa are more difficult to treat, since the cellular physiology of the pathogen is so close to that of the host = Infections caused by viruses are especially difficult, since the cellular physiology of the pathogen IS that of the host! -
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This note was uploaded on 11/24/2011 for the course BIO 113 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

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113lecture2806 - BIOLOGY 113 - MICROBIOLOGY Lecture 28:...

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