113lecture3306slides

113lecture3306slides - caused by erythrogenic toxin...

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Microbial Diseases of the Upper Respiratory Tract • Upper Respiratory Tract (URT) Oropharynx (mouth and throat) Nasopharynx (nasal cavity) – Middle ear and Eustachian tubes – Sinuses • Lower Respiratory Tract (LRT): Larynx, trachea, bronchii, alveoli, and pleura Structures of the Upper Respiratory Tract
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Upper respiratory tract infections result in inflammation of URT tissues Pharyngitis - Inflammation of the throat Tonsillitis - Inflammation of the tonsils Sinusitis - Inflammation of the sinuses Epiglottitis - Inflammation of the epiglottis Otitis - Inflammation of the ears Rhinitis - Inflammation of the nasopharynx Laryngitis - Inflammation of the larynx Streptococcal Pharyngitis • “Strep throat” • In fact, most pharyngitis is NOT streptococcal • Group A Streptococcus possess virulence factors to promote colonization and resist immunity • Diagnosed by serology and culture • Clinical concerns Scarlet fever
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Unformatted text preview: caused by erythrogenic toxin Rheumatic fever , an autoimmune sequela Diphtheria Corynebacterium diphtheriae Localized infection of the URT Disease due to systemic cytotoxin encoded on a prophage Formerly a signicant cause of morbidity and mortality, today diphteria is controlled by universal vaccination Most cases in elderly with reduced immunity Otitis media Inammation of the middle ear Most common in young children Agents include Streptococcus pneumoniae Haemophilus inuenzae Moraxella catarrhalis Usually resolves without antibiotic therapy Acute coryza The common cold 50% due to rhinoviruses , although number of possible agents probably >200 Immunity may develop, but isnt cross-protective Not only can nobody cure the common cold, nobody much knows how to prevent it! Treatment is of symptoms...
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113lecture3306slides - caused by erythrogenic toxin...

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