notes_3_2x2 - Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 ✬...

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Unformatted text preview: Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 ✬ ✫ ✩ ✪ Announcements and Such • Today’s Music: Steve Earle and Townes Van Zandt • If it’s your first time . . . – Grab a syllabus, study the website (especially the handouts and lecture notes), and ask your me or your GSI any questions you have. • Sections will meet Monday & Friday (starting tomorrow). – Bledin: 1–3:30 MF. Students AHN – LIN. Room: 213 Wheeler. – Lawrence: 1–3:30 MF. Students LIU – ZHANG. Room: 130 Wheeler. ☞ HW #1 will be given as a quiz in section tomorrow. • I’ve posted HW #2 (chapters 2&3) — due next Thursday (by 4pm). – Please consult and follow the “HW Tips & Guidelines” handout. – All HW’s will turned–in to the 12A Drop Box (outside 301 Moses). • Today: Chapter 2, Continued UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 (Cont’d) 05/27/10 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 2 ✬ ✫ Abstract Argument Logical Form LSL / LMPL / LFOL Symbolization Chapters 2 , 5 & 7 English Argument Valid Form? Deciding Formal Validity Chapters 3, 4, 6 & 8 Valid English Argument? Valid Abstract Argument? Articulation of Thought in English UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 (Cont’d) 05/27/10 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 3 ✬ ✫ ✩ ✪ English ֏ LSL II: Symbolizing in Two Stages ☞ When symbolizing English sentences in LSL (especially complex ones), it is useful to perform the symbolization in (at least) two stages . Stage 1 : Replace all basic sentences (explicit or implicit) with atomic letters. This yields a sentence in “Logish” (neither English nor LSL). Stage 2 : Eliminate remaining English by replacing English connectives with LSL connectives, and properly grouping the resulting symbolic expression (w/parens, etc .) to yield pure LSL. • Here are some simple examples of symbolizations: English: “Logish”: LSL: Either it’s raining or it’s snowing. If Dell introduces a new line, then Apple will also. Snow is white and the sky is blue. It is not the case that Emily Bronte wrote Jane Eyre . John is a bachelor if and only if he is unmarried. Either R or S . If D , then A . W and B . It is not the case that E . J if and only if not M . R ∨ S D → A W & B ∼ E J ↔ ∼ M UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 (Cont’d) 05/27/10 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 4 ✬ ✫ English ֏ LSL IV: Symbolizations involving ‘ → ’ (and ‘ ↔ ’) ☞ We will use ‘ → ’ to symbolize many different English expressions. These will be among the most tricky of our LSL symbolizations. It is very important that you remember these various expressions involving ‘ → ’! – [ if p then q ֏ [ p → q – [ p implies q ֏ [ p → q – [ p only if q ֏ [ p → q – [ q if p ֏ [ p → q – [ p is a sufficient condition for q ֏ [ p → q – [ q is a necessary condition for p ֏ [ p → q – [ q provided p ֏ [ p → q – [ q whenever p ֏ [ p → q – [ p is contingent upon q ֏ [ p → q • [ p ↔ q is equivalent to [ (p → q) & (q → p) (so mastering ‘...
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notes_3_2x2 - Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 ✬...

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