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# notes_4_2x2 - Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1...

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Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 1 Announcements and Such Today’s Music: Dire Straits Richard and Justin will hold extra office hours this week (to make-up for the missed sections on Monday — owing to Memorial Day). Justin will have extra office hours from 11–1 on Tuesday. Richard will have extra office hours from 3:30–5 on Wednesday. My office hours (from now on) will be held 4–5:30 on Wednesdays. HW #2 due Friday @ 5pm in the 12A Drop Box (outside 301 Moses) . Make sure you follow the guidelines/hints on my “HW Tips” Handout People seem to have done pretty well on HW #1 (I’ll return to problem #30 on the next slide). Grades will be entered into bspace soon. Note: more 12A Practice Problems can be found in: Schaum’s Outline of Logic (second edition), which is an inexpensive paperback book. Today: Chapter 2, Continued; and, then, Chapter 3, Introduction UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 (Cont’d) & Chapter 3 (Intro) 06/01/10 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 2 Rewind: A Tricky Question — #30 on HW #1 The last problem on HW #1 is about the following argument ( A ): (1) If Prince William is unmarried, then Prince William is a bachelor. (2) Prince William is a bachelor. (3) Therefore, Prince William is unmarried. Is A is absolutely sound ? Since both premises (1) and (2) of A are actually true, this question reduces to “Is A is absolutely valid ?”. A is clearly not sententially valid (“ affirming the consequent ”). Nonetheless, one might be tempted to argue that A is absolutely valid on the grounds that A ’s conclusion (3) follows from premise (2) alone . We will be conservative here. We will only call an argument valid if we have a some theory according to which it has a valid logical form . We have no such theory for argument A . So, we’ll say A is not valid. Our philosophical logic (142) course delves into this issue. I recommend John MacFarlane’s SEP entry “Logical Constants” for further reading. UCB Philosophy Chapter 2 (Cont’d) & Chapter 3 (Intro) 06/01/10 Branden Fitelson Philosophy 12A Notes 3 Symbolizing/ Reconstructing Entire English Arguments Naïvely, an argument is “just a collection of sentences”. So, naïvely, one might think that symbolizing arguments should just boil down to symbolizing a bunch of individual sentences. It’s not so simple. An argumentative passage has more structure than an individual sentence. This makes argument reconstruction more subtle. We must now make sure we capture the inter-relations of content across the various sentences of the argument. To a large extent, these interrelations are captured by a judicious choice of atomic sentences for the reconstruction. It is also crucial to keep in mind the overall intent of the argumentative passage — the intended argumentative strategy.

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