5_Gilded Age PPT

5_Gilded Age PPT - 9/1/2010 “A thousand trains a day”:...

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Unformatted text preview: 9/1/2010 “A thousand trains a day”: Redefining America in the Gilded Age Gilded Age Images of America Literature: Local Colorists and Literary Naturalism Photography: Documentary Art Architecture: Function, Form, and Finesse Landscape: Mastery of nature’s mastery of man Nature/Elements Men/Control Men/Control New York City, 1903 Alfred Stieglitz Hamlin Garland, MainMain-Traveled Roads (1891) (1891) Local Colorists: Exploring America’s Nooks and Crannies Sarah Orne Jewett, Country of the Pointed Firs (1891) (1891) Joel Chandler Harris, Uncle Remus (1880) (1880) “All modern American literature comes from one book by mark Twain, called Huckleberry Finn” --Ernest Hemingway 1 9/1/2010 Literary Naturalists: Human Vulnerability to Nature Jack London, Stephen Crane, Red Badge of Courage (1895) Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893) (1893) The Call of the Wild (1903) (1903) Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie (1900) (1900) “environment is a tremendous environment thing in the world and frequently shapes lives regardless." --Stephen Crane Growth of Urban South and Urban West 1880 1920 New Orleans San Francisco New Orleans San Francisco Los Angeles Seattle Minneapolis Omaha Kansas City Atlanta Birmingham Houston 2 9/1/2010 Mississippi Plan “A thousand trains a day”: Redefining Americans in the Gilded Age Race Ethnicity Gender Class Class Americans in the Gilded Age were a new breed, in a new nation, facing new challenges, and all the basic lines that once identified “Americans” no longer seemed to apply Poll tax ($2) Literacy requirement (Constitution) “Grandfather clause” Disfranchised most African-American—and many poor white—voters Black voters dropped off sharply Laws found to be legal . . . Paves way for formal segregation W. E. B. DuBois (founder •Homer Plessy (1/8 black) has ticket for seat in first-class railcar—but arrested for sitting firstrailcar— there •SC: Plessy at fault, and state can set restrictions that segregate citizens—as long as citizens— accommodations are equal Legalized Jim Crow & instituted “separate but equal” policy Many (but not most) African Americans leave South Launches ideological debate about place and role of black Americans of NAACP): MA native, Harvard PhD, German education Equality via immediate advancement Booker T. Washington (in his office at Tuskegee University): Southern native, ex-slave Equality via practical improvement, education, negotiation 3 9/1/2010 Jim Crow: Black Americans are not “real” Americans The Deluge Partly. 1815-1860 5 million immigrants 1860-1890 10 million immigrants (England, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia) (1871: 74% of immigrant pop v. 5% S/E Europe) But Gilded Age America was asking the same question about nearly everyone, including the massive influx of immigrants arriving on American shores. 1890-1914 15 million immigrants (Russia, Greece, Italy) A legacy of Southern slavery? A product of racism? 1920: N/W Europeans=17% of pop S/E Europeans = 30% of pop Ellis Island admitted about 5,000 people/day 12,000,000 between 1892 and 1954 Statue of 15-year old Annie Moore, the first immigrant through Ellis Island, and Moore in 1910 4 9/1/2010 Into the maelstrom: Examination Hall at Ellis Island Immigration became a path to fame for many . . . Andrew Andrew Carnegie: Carnegie Steel Knute Rockne: Pro Football Irving Berlin: Composer (“White Christmas”) Bob Hope: Comedian Felix Frankfurter: SC Justice “I came to America because I heard the streets were paved with gold. When I got here, I found out three things: first, the streets weren’t paved with gold; second, they weren’t paved at all; and, third, I was expected to pave them. them.” --Italian view of immigration reality . . . but becoming an American was harder for many others . . . “100% American” or Else: Immigrants Immigrants take jobs from native-born citizens nativeImmigrants Immigrants dilute mainstream American culture Immigrants Immigrants threaten Protestantism New immigrants were not the familiar Irish Catholics or German Jews Immigrants Immigrants threatened American progress Al Jolson: Singer, Performer 5 9/1/2010 Immigration Restrictions: Nativist Response American American Protective Association, 1887 1875— 1875—illegal to admit prostitutes and convicts 1882— 1882—illegal to admit the insane, mentally disabled, and other public dependents bli 1891— 1891—illegal to admit illiterates (in any language) oCleveland, Taft, and Wilson vetoed oCongress overrode veto, 1917 Common negative images of Irish immigrants: dishonest, violent, & lazy The New American? That question extended beyond race and ethnicity to encompass women of any background What did an American woman do? Where did she live? live? How did she dress? Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 6 9/1/2010 Cult of Domesticity: Respectable, nurturing wife and respectable, comfortable home Woman selling flowers, women working in factory Opera? Coney Island? BareBare-Knuckle Boxing? Class and Leisure in in the Gilded Age Americans liked to have fun—and the Gilded Age fun— gave them ample opportunity Macy’s Woolworth’s Shopping became easier with the introduction of large stores that appeared across the nation 7 9/1/2010 Sears Catalog Montgomery Ward’s 1872 catalog soon grew to 500 pp. Department stores like Macy’s, Marshall Field’s, and Wannamaker’s originally were luxurious places for affluent women to shop and socialize . . . . . .for working class women to earn money and practice patience . . . Who said history is boring? Gilded Age Americans loved to have fun and found innumerable exciting and dangerous ways to do it First “gravity” coaster, Coney Island, 1884 Only 5¢ to ride and reaching speeds of 6 mph! mph! . . . and for male managers to negotiate between them 8 9/1/2010 Sports both distinguished classes and mixed them college football bare-knuckle boxing Chicago, 1890 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings Vaudeville: ventriloquists, actors, dancers, jugglers, comedians, sing-alongs ... Bawdy, fun, and enormously popular 9 9/1/2010 With Scott Joplin at the helm, ragtime blended AfricanAfrican-American spirituals and saloon music to create a distinctly American, workingworking-class brand “Maple Leaf Rag,” 1899 Coney Island gave visitors thrills right-side-up and upside-down The American City Comes of Age Rural Past?: The Rise of Urban America 1860 31 mill 6 mill 20% US Pop. Urban Pop. Urban Americans 1920 105 mill 54 mill 50% 10 9/1/2010 The Face of Urban America: The Face of the Future? The city became a haven for the dispossessed, a hideaway for the persecuted, and a diversion for the stagnant Rural Americans: Different Opportunities, “Glamour” Glamour Black Southerners: Acceptance, Opportunity Immigrants: Stability, Safety Origin of Gilded Age Immigrants: North/West South/East Transportation and trade laid the foundations for the cities . . . . . . and cities laid and the foundation for companies, which in turn built the cities . . . Otis’ elevators made it possible to create a “vertical city” 11 9/1/2010 Philadelphia, Philadelphia, about 1900 Home Life Insurance Co, 10 stories--1885 stories--1885 Woolworth’s Building, 55 stories, 1918 (tallest until Chrysler Building, 1930) San Francisco cable car, 1870s HorseHorse-drawn wagons were picturesque—but filthy—ways to picturesque— filthy— get about town Electric trolley, the “street railway” 12 9/1/2010 1908: first automobiles 1912: million on the roads 1913: Ford’s innovations 1929: 27 million autos on roads 1909: Model-T Model- Location, Location, Location, Location: Urban Urban Settlement Patterns Well-toWell-to-do Americans fled city center for “suburbs” New middle-class managers moved into urban apartment middlecomplexes Assembly lines + good pay + simple style = America’s love affair with automobiles BlueBlue-collar workers moved a ways away from city center Poor crowded into city center of tenements 13 9/1/2010 Jacob Riis began capturing tenement life on film: Manhattan had 42,700 in 1900, housing 1.6 million people Olmsted’s designs changed the look and feel of cities across America NYC Central Park C NYC Central Park Tenements—overcrowded and unsanitary— dominated urban landscapes in the Gilded Age US Capitol Grounds 1874 The Court of Honor at the Fair The White City, 1893 14 9/1/2010 Modern rendition, 1893 Expo site National Mall, Washington, DC (1901) The “White City” and the “Black City” coexisted across the nation—launching calls for social aid and reform . . . nation— yet another form of light and dark Men like “Boss” Tweed were fodder for Th. Nast’s scathing cartoons; political bosses freely mingled community uplift with corruption, law with graft 15 9/1/2010 All that glitters, is not gold . . . 16 ...
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