6_ Progressive Era PPT

6 Progressive Era - Redemption Consciousness Conscience Reform Packingtown Plume Hunters and Prohibition The Progressive Era Darwin’s

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: 9/1/2010 Redemption Consciousness Conscience Reform Packingtown, Plume Hunters, and Prohibition: The Progressive Era Darwin’s observations of natural selection were a scientific breakthrough . . . Progress? Ideas Possibilities Possibilities Reality Reality . . . but became the basis for varied ideas of but humanity’s social progress Ward: Spencer: Spencer: human human society society progresses progresses by via natural controlling selection to evolution weed out with action the “unfit” Social and Reform Darwinism 1 9/1/2010 Social Evolution means gradual reform and nonnoninterference or heavy interference Social Criticism means someday, somewhere, means somehow Social Criticism: Henry Demarest Lloyd: monopoly inhibits progress Thorstein Veblen: “conspicuous consumption” Edward Bellamy: utopia as yet unattained Social Gospel Movement: Reform lay in the Xn transformation of the social order Why not today, here, with private Why here with religious religious zeal? Social Gospel the key to some the Not all religious reformers focused on the ‘burbs or dismissed distress as moral failure: YMCA / Salvation Army / urban churches A lot of hot air? Cold-blooded predictions? ColdWhere did all that talk lead? Ideology + Theory + Idealism Discontent Discontent Articulated & Practical Activism Rauschenbusch Rauschenbusch 2 9/1/2010 “Agriculture languishes” while everyone else while prospers --Leonidas --Leonidas Polk Presidential Initiative Chester Arthur: Pendleton Civil Service Act Grover Cleveland: Interstate Commerce Commission Benjamin Harrison: Sherman Anti-Trust Act Anti- The Agrarian Revolt The Grange (1870s) The Alliance (1880s) The Populists (1890-1896) (1890- “Raise less corn and more hell” --Mary Lease The Alliance takes on politics, and crafts a more radical plan for sustaining farmers 3 9/1/2010 Populism Populism Ocala Convention— Convention— Ocala Platform Free Free silver Lower Lower tariffs RR RR regulation by govt SubSub-treasury plan Wm Jennings Bryan’s Cross of Gold speech was a seminal moment for the Populists, but it could not win the the presidency The Alliance built on Charles Macune’s plans until they evolved into a third political party entirely Public Public Education American Children in Public School 1870— 1870—57% 1920—78% 1920— John John Dewey’s ideas and leadership leadership revised and expanded public education Wizard of Oz as Populism? as Silver slippers, Wicked Witch of East, heartless Tin Man . . . 4 9/1/2010 1870 1890 1920 Enrollment in College Education 52,000 students 563 schools 157,000 998 600,000 1,041 1,0 Higher Education grew fastest in Graduate Schools: Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Stanford, Chicago Founded by the Puritans in 1636, Harvard began offering PhD degrees in 1872 Settlement House Activists Ellen Starr: Hull House (Chicago) with Addams Jane Addams: Hull House & icon of GAPE activism Lillian Wald: Henry Street House (NY) Places like Hull House looked after immigrants like these children and their families with with child care, clinics, employment aid, banks, and schools . . . But to what end? 5 9/1/2010 What was Progressivism? was Progressivism? Who were the Progressives? were Reception Room at Hull House Jacob Riis “Five Cents Lodging” 1889 “Room in a Tenement Flat,” Jessie Beals, 1910 6 9/1/2010 Tenement Flat Problem and Possibility Cornelia Stewart’s Bedroom “Muckrakers” Lincoln Steffens Upton Sinclair Ida Tarbell The Pure Food and Drug Act attacked quack medicine and contaminated food “Everything but the squeal”: The Jungle exposed the unsavory side of meatpacking in the early 20th century 7 9/1/2010 Nearly 700 people— mostly immigrant women 16-23—were working when the Triangle Shirtwaist factory caught fire in March 1911 Flashpoints Reform Reform Democracy + Efficiency + Regulation Regulation + Social Social Justice + Prohibition “Progressivism” ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Victims of Triangle Shirtwaist Fire 8 9/1/2010 Activist Reality Activist Expectations problems beyond reach of local reform—only reform— government has necessary resources stronger, more active, more honest government enhanced aid to poor and needy But traditional government not suited to meet meet new demands new new kind of society based on public control New kind of democracy? Install regulation between democracy and people as a bridge WHAT WHAT was Progressivism? WHO were the Progressives? Urban: most problems urban (rural a distant relative) MiddleMiddle-class: time, resources, and inclination Professionals: knew big business, knew its principles of efficiency and order + Rural reformers, presidents, wealthy women . . . Child labor Poverty City admin. Infrastructure Farmers Food/drugs Temperance—Prohibition Many problems—One solution problems— Progressivism: Activism based on the desire to reform everyone’s personal “other half” and the recognition that the other halves are always there 9 9/1/2010 “Damn cowboy,” “bully pulpit,” and “big stick”: Roosevelt as a Progressive Progressives were diverse, their concerns were many . . . But one theme theme united them into era— into an era—a new relationship between people and government Roosevelt as a Progressive: Conservation “To waste, to destroy our natural resources, to skin and exhaust the land instead of using it so as to increase its usefulness, will result in undermining in the days of our children the very prosperity which we ought by right to hand down to them amplified and developed." Theodore Roosevelt, 1907 Yellowstone National Park Cavalry c. 1900: model for park rangers 10 9/1/2010 The Ultimate Progressive Underwood Tariff, 1913 16th Amendment, 1913 Federal Reserve Act, 1913 Federal Trade Commission, 1914 Federal Farm Loan Act, 1916 18th Amendment, 1919 1919 20th Amendment, 1920 Child labor laws Taft Progressive Successors Wilson Social Progressivism Margaret Sanger: Indicted in 1914 for obscenity charges— charges—distributing lit on birth control Progressive Impact Progressive America? Rely more—not less—on experts, professionals, and bureaucracy Demand and expect more—not less—government Drought!: 1919, 18th Amendment launches Prohibition Line between public and private diminished by pervasive problem-solving 11 9/1/2010 Problems and Possibilities Progressive reform gave Americans a potent sense of control—with the right motivation and resources, regulation, order, equity, and prosperity all were possible . . . But that order is about to be thrown into chaos as world plunges into a war unlike anything it’s ever seen 12 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course AMH 2020 taught by Professor minor during the Fall '11 term at Santa Fe College.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online