Anthro Notes AMHS PP

Anthro Notes AMHS PP - Modern Human Origins (anatomically...

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Modern Human Origins (anatomically modern Homo sapiens )
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H.sapiens vs. H.neanderthalensis Huge nasal bones } Occipital bun { Prognathic face Globular cranium chin
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Two competing models : 1. Out of Africa hypothesis: AMHS first appeared in Africa, then spread out and replaced earlier forms 2. Multiregional hypothesis: AMHS evolved out of H. erectus , all over the world at about the same time, also developing regional (“racial”) variation *There are also some “intermediate” or “compromise” hypotheses.
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Different expectations under these models : 1. Out of Africa: a) oldest AMHS fossils should be found in Africa; b) should date to around 100- 200kya 2. Multiregional: a) oldest AMHS fossils should be found all over the Old World; b) should all date to around the same time; c) early AMHS should most closely resemble modern peoples from same region (e.g., Neanderthals and modern Europeans)
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Three Types of Evidence for Testing MRC vs OA Genetic : Primarily mitochondrial DNA Other types of DNA (e.g. Y-chromosome) Fossil The bones themselves Archaeological : Stone tool types Burials Art
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Problems with testing models : 1. Getting sufficient (uncontaminated) DNA, appropriate samples 2. Fragmentary nature of the fossil record 3. Dating of sites Omo Kibish fossils
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Genetic Data (mostly support OA Hypothesis) “Mitochondrial Eve” African populations most genetically diverse African populations are at the “root” of human family tree using genetic data. Relies on the “molecular clock” (mutation rates) to determine age of lineages.
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Genetic Studies Examples
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What does the genetic evidence say? * S. Tishkoff’s team, Univ. of Maryland * samples from over 600 East Africans * analyzed mtDNA (2003 study) Bantu speakers Maasai
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Findings : 1. High number of mutations, lots of variation 2. Oldest lineages originated 170kya 3. East/Northeast African homeland
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Does this necessarily nullify the Multiregional Continuity hypothesis? Why or why not?
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Is there genetic evidence that would support MRC? If the Multiregional hypothesis is correct, then we should expect Neanderthal mtDNA to be closer to that of ________________ than of anyone else.
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1997 Study of Neanderthal mtDNA by Paabo compared mtDNA from the original Neanderthal specimen to samples from over 2000 living humans differed from modern people by an average of 27 mutations no more similar to Europeans than anyone else
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separation may date to 550- 690kya
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course ASM 104 taught by Professor Prof.alvrus during the Spring '11 term at Mesa CC.

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Anthro Notes AMHS PP - Modern Human Origins (anatomically...

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