Anthro Power POint Early Homo Students

Anthro Power POint Early Homo Students - Origins and...

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Origins and Evolution of the Genus Homo
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Homo Lineage Definitively incorporated meat into diet Early: existed in eastern and southern Africa Co-existed with Paranthropus species Appears in fossil record 2.5-2.0 mya Stone tools
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5.5 6.0 4.0 4.5 3.0 3.5 2.0 2.5 1.0 1.5 .1 .5 Australopithecus africanus A. garhi P. aethiopicus P. robustus P. boisei Homo habilis H. rudolfensis Homo erectus Homo ergaster Homo neandertalensis Homo sapiens
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______________of Genus Homo Larger cranial capacity (> 500 cm 3 ) Increased rounding of cranial base More flexion Facial prognathism further reduced Particularly sub-nasal reduction Accompanying increased nasal protrusion Reduced post-orbital constriction Expansion of frontal brain Thicker cranial bones (in general) More rounded/parabolic dental arcade
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A. afarensis vs. Homo species
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P. boisei H. habilis
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Homo Species H. habilis H. rudolfensis ( * ) H. georgicus ( * ) H. ergaster H. erectus H. antecessor ( * ) H. heidelbergensis H. neanderthalensis H. floresiensis ( * ) H. sapiens (* Species status controversial)
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Homo habilis rudolfensis East and South (?) Africa ~2.4 - 1.9 mya Localities Hadar, Ethiopia Koobi Fora, Kenya Olduvai, Tanzania Lake Malawi, Malawi Sterkfontein, South Africa? First stone tools habilis = “handy”
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H. habilis Characteristics _________________ Smaller molars and premolars than any australopithecine Slender mandible Larger anterior teeth than Paranthropus
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____________________ Smaller face than Australopithecus Rounded maxilla Brow ridges Cranial capacity >500 cc H. habilis Characteristics
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A. africanus 435 - 550 cc H. habilis 500 - 800 cc P. aethiopicus 410 cc Brain Increase: Slight increase 500-800 cc H. habilis Characteristics
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Homo habilis First finds made in 1960-1961 _Louis and Mary Leakey_________________ in Olduvai Gorge Specimens were much less robust than P. boisei , with smaller teeth and no cresting on the skull Stone tools had already been found at the same layers; the new hominids were thought to be responsible Parts of skulls from _three individuals__________ individuals: OH 7, OH 13 , OH 16 OH 7 also associated with a _mandible__________ and some ____________ bones OH 8 is a left ____________
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A Few H. habilis Specimens
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H. habilis Postcranial Specimens Foot more advanced and resembles extant humans suggesting a more striding gait Convergent hallux (________________) Arch in foot (_______________) ____________ foot phalanges Larger femoral head than Australopithecus Some arboreal traits retained Retains long arms relative to legs Hand phalanges still curved
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Chimp Human OH 8 foot (reversed for comparison) OH 8 foot (reversed for comparison)
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H. rudolfensis H. habilis Two Species?
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H. habilis & H. rudolfensis H. habilis & H. rudolfensis H. habilis H. rudolfensis
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Anthro Power POint Early Homo Students - Origins and...

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