Anthropology Later Homo Notes PDF

Anthropology Later Homo Notes PDF - ASM 104 Lecture #13...

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ASM 104 Lecture #13 1 Middle Pleistocene Hominids and Modern Human Origins Synapomorphies of Genus Homo Larger cranial capacity (> 500 cm 3 ) Increased rounding of cranial base – More flexion Facial prognathism further reduced – Particularly sub-nasal reduction – Accompanying increased nasal protrusion Reduced post-orbital constriction – Expansion of frontal brain Thicker cranial bones (in general) More rounded/parabolic dental arcade Early Homo Fossil Evidence Homo habilis and H. rudolfensis – 2.6-1.9 mya – Oldowan tools – Passive scavenging Homo erectus and H. ergaster – 2.0 mya- 50 kya (in some areas) – Acheulean tools – Active Scavenging and Hunting – Expansion out of Africa
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ASM 104 Lecture #13 2 Later Homo Species Homo antecessor Homo heidelbergensis Homo neanderthalensis Homo sapiens • Newly discovered Homo floresiensis What’s in a Name? “archaic” Homo sapiens vs. Homo antecessor , Homo heidelbergensis , Homo neanderthalensis How are species defined? How are “humans” defined? Homo antecessor • Discovered at site of Gran Dolina in Atapuerca hills of Spain in 1994 • 80 hominid specimens – Highly fragmentary • Paleomagnetism date of 780 kya
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ASM 104 Lecture #13 3 H. antecessor • Tools: Oldowan-like – Cut marks on bison, deer and hominids – Evidence of cannibalism? H. antecessor • Discoverers think it’s the LCA of humans and Neanderthals • Others think it’s simply early H. heidelbergensis • Similar to H. heidelbergensis • But Some Modern Traits – Canine fossa in juvenile specimen Homo heidelbergensis • Africa, Asia, Europe • 800-200 kya if H. antecessor is really H. heidelbergensis • 300-200 kya if not
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ASM 104 Lecture #13 4 H. heidelbergensis Characteristics – cranial capacity avg 1200 cc – brow ridges arched – steeper foreheads – thinner cranial bones than H. erectus – face is smaller – less alveolar prognathism – less post-orbital constriction – still no chin – robust skeletons, but more modern than H. erectus Reduced supraorbital tori Prognathism reduced Homo erectus Occipital (nuchal) torus reduced H. heidelbergensis vs. H. erectus More rounded skull European Localities
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5 The Arago Skull • Recovered in a cave site in France • 400-300 kya • Upper Acheulean artifacts • Cranial capacity = 1150 cc The Steinheim and Petralona Skulls • Steinheim: German locality • Postmortem facial distortion • Petralona: Greece Petralona Steinheim Sima de los Huesos • Hundreds of fossils were found at the bottom of a pit at the Atapuerca Site in Spain • “Pit of Bones” • 300 kya
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This note was uploaded on 11/25/2011 for the course ASM 104 taught by Professor Prof.alvrus during the Spring '11 term at Mesa CC.

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Anthropology Later Homo Notes PDF - ASM 104 Lecture #13...

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