10-Inflation - Cosmic Inflation, Dark Matter, and Dark...

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Cosmic Inflation, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe Biology 190A Lecture 10 ‐‐‐ Prof. Steve Schneider Dept. of Astronomy
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The Cosmic Microwave (CMB) ackground Radiation Modern satellite Background Radiation measurements show that the CMB radiation is extremely niform in uniform in all directions. he radiation The radiation comes from a time bout 400,000 years after the Big Bang, when the we look carefully there are tiny fluctuations in the about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, when the universe’s temperature had cooled to about 3000 K. If we look carefully, there are tiny fluctuations in the CMB (1 part in 100,000)—the beginnings of galaxies.
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us The Expanding Universe day we see all galaxies flying away from us Today we see all galaxies flying away from us. The farther away a galaxy is, the faster it is oving moving: A galaxy that is 2×farther moves 2×faster A galaxy that is 3×farther moves 3×faster
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us The Beginning of Time e motion of galaxies is what we would expect The motion of galaxies is what we would expect from an explosion—a “Big Bang” trapolating backward we find all galaxies were Extrapolating backward we find all galaxies were “on top” of each other 13.7 billion years ago. t t d di ti kd tt h d Matter and radiation was packed together and very hot.
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The Big Bang and its ft th Aftermath ti l helium sion MB particle era Today fusion CMB
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The Three Pillars of the Big Bang Lemaître’s “primordial egg” theory successfully explains 3 fundamental features of the universe: the expansion of space the cosmic microwave background (prediction) the amount of helium in the universe (prediction) The helium was produced during a time before the CMB era when the universe was as hot and dense as a star’s interior. (more on this next week) Alpher, Bethe, & Gamow (1948) predicted that about 25% of the ydrogen would fuse into helium hydrogen would fuse into helium in a Big Bang universe.
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Possible Fates Bi B When astronomers calculate the rate at which the universe is expanding versus for a Big Bang Universe pg the density of matter in the universe they find we are close to a“ critical Future Collapse Big Bang was too density ” dividing two possible fates. This is illustrated by a diagram of the ig ang was too weak versus gravitational pull.
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 190a taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at UMass (Amherst).

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10-Inflation - Cosmic Inflation, Dark Matter, and Dark...

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