21-Origin_Life - CHEMICAL EVOLUTION AND THE ORIGIN OF LIFE...

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CHEMICAL EVOLUTION AND THE ORIGIN OF LIFE Miller Apparatus Cell-like Vesicles Made From Murchison Meteorite (1969)
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IMPORTANT EVENTS IN THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF THE ORIGIN OF LIFE I. BIRTH OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY (1828) Organic from inorganic compound: Wohler’s synthesis of urea from ammonium cyanate II. BIRTH OF BIOCHEMISTRY . I (1860) Fermentation caused by microorganisms: Pasteur’s in vivo fermentation III. BIRTH OF BIOCHEMISTRY . II (1897) Cell-free fermentation: Buchner’s in vitro fermentation IV. DISCOVERY THAT ENZYMES ARE PROTEINS (1926) Crystallization of an enzyme: Sumner’s crystallization of urease V. DNA: THE GENETIC MATERIAL (1952-53)
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Friedrich Wöhler 1800-1882 Synthesis of Urea from Ammonium Cyanate 1828 Birth of Organic Chemistry
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Redi’s Experiment (1668) Spontaneous Generation Belief That Lower Forms of Life Spontaneously Arise from Non-living Material Spallanzani’s Experiment (1765) Spallanzani set out two sets of vessels containing a broth. One was left open to the air, the other was sealed after the broth in it had first been boiled to kill any bacteria that might already be present. Only the broth which had been sealed remained sterile. Proponents of spontaneous generation, however, remained unconvinced, arguing that the boiling had destroyed some "vital principle" in the air which explained why no microbes appeared in the closed container.
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Louis Pasteur 1822-1895 Disproved Spontaneous Generation 1862 To address the criticism leveled at Spallanzani's earler experiments, namely that boiling might destroy some "vital principle" in air, Pasteur devised a long swan-necked flask. Air could reach the flask through the opening but dust particles and microorganisms could not, because the curved neck served as a trap. Pasteur placed some broth in the flask, attached the swan-neck, boiled the broth until it steamed (to kill any microorganisms in the neck as well as in the broth), and waited to see what happened. The broth remained sterile, demonstrating that there was no vital principle in air. Scientists now faced the problem of explaining how, if spontaneous generation was wrong, life could originate .
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Pasteur's Experiments Disproving Spontaneous Generation (1862) Pasteur’s Flasks
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Pasteur Discovers in Vivo Fermentation (1860)
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Edward Buchner Discovers in Vitro Fermentation (1897) Edward Buchner
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James Sumner Crystallizes the First Enzyme- Urease (1926) James Sumner Urease Crystals Sumner decided to isolate an enzyme in pure form, an ambitious aim that had not been achieved by anyone. For many years his work was unsuccessful, but in spite of
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This note was uploaded on 11/22/2011 for the course BIOLOGY 190a taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at UMass (Amherst).

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21-Origin_Life - CHEMICAL EVOLUTION AND THE ORIGIN OF LIFE...

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