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Unformatted text preview: Chemistry 201: General Chemistry II - Lecture Dr. Namphol Sinkaset Chapter 12 Study Guide Concepts 1. Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. 2. solute : substance present in smaller amount. 3. solvent : substance present in greater amount. 4. Liquid solutions are easiest to study because: (1) components are localized, (2) com- ponents mix well, and (3) they are easy to handle/transfer. 5. Solutions do not have to be liquid based. 6. solubility : amount of substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. 7. Formation of a gas phase solution comprised of two noble gases is driven by entropy , not energy. 8. entropy : measure of energy of randomization or energy dispersal in a system. 9. Formation of liquid solutions are driven by entropy and intermolecular forces . 10. In solution, there are three types of particle interactions. 11. Like dissolves like rule : when solute and solvent have similar intermolecular forces, they tend to form a solution. 12. miscible : term used to describe two liquids that are soluble in all proportions. 13. The relationship between solvent-solute, solvent-solvent, and solute-solute interactions determines when a solution will form. If solvent-solute interactions are about equal to solvent-solvent and solute-solute interactions, entropy will decide whether a solution forms. 14. Energy changes are observed when solutions form. The enthalpy of solution , H soln , is the enthalpy associated with solution creation, and it can be estimated with a Hesss Law type calculation. 15. Formation of a solution can be broken up into three steps: (1) separation of solid into its constituent particles, H solute ; (2) separation of solvent particles to make room for solute, H solvent ; (3) mixing solute particles with solvent particles, H mix . 16. For ionic, water-based solutions, H solvent and H mix can be combined into H hydration . 1 17. heat of hydration : enthalpy change when 1 mole of gaseous solute ions are dissolved in water. 18. For ionic compounds, H solute =- H lattice . 19. When excess solid is added to a solution, an equilibrium is set up between the dissolu- tion and deposition processes. If an equilibrium is established, the solution is said to be saturated ....
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- Fall '08