EnvChBasicsCondensedLect

EnvChBasicsCondensedLect - Narrative for a Lecture on...

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Narrative for a Lecture on Environmental Chemistry Slide 1: Environmental chemistry is that branch of chemical science that deals with the production, transport, reactions, effects, and fates of chemical species in the water, air, terrestrial, and biological environment and the effects of human activities thereon. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Environmental chemistry is that branch of chemical science that deals with the production, transport, reactions, effects, and fates of chemical species in the water, air, terrestrial, and biological environments and the effects of human activities thereon. Reference: Stanley E. Manahan, Fundamentals of Environmental Chemistry, 3rd ed., Taylor & Francis/CRC Press, 2009 (manahans@missouri.edu) For additional information about environmental chemistry and to download this and other presentations see: http://sites.google.com/site/manahan1937/Home http://manahans1.googlepages.com/
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S(coal) + O 2 SO 2 SO 2 SO 2 + 1 / 2 O 2 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO 4 H 2 SO 4 , sulfates ILLUSTRATION OF THE DEFINITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Slide 2: The definition of environmental chemistry is illustrated with a typical pollutant species. In this case sulfur in coal is oxidized to sulfur dioxide gas that is emitted to the atmosphere. The sulfur dioxide gas can be oxidized to sulfuric acid by atmospheric chemical processes, fall back to Earth as acid rain, affect a receptor such as plants, and end up in a "sink" such as a body of water or soil.
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Slide 3: In the past many environmental problems were caused by practices that now seem to be totally unacceptable as expressed from the quote in this slide from what was regarded as a reputable book on the American chemical industry in 1954. The result was polluted air, polluted water, dangerous hazardous waste sites, and harm to living organisms. Into the river Out the door Up the stack (From American Chemical Industry —a History, W. Haynes, Van Nostrand Publishers, 1954) The Old Attitude: “By sensible definition any by-product of a chemical operation for which there is no profitable use is a waste. The most convenient, least expensive way of disposing of said waste—up the chimney or down the river—is best.”
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Slide 4: Dating from around 1970, laws and regulations were implemented to control air and water pollution and to clean up hazardous waste sites. These measures have relied largely upon “end of pipe” controls in which pollutants were generated but were removed before release to the environment. Although costly and requiring constant vigilance to make sure that standards have been met, these measures have been successful in reducing pollution and preventing increases in pollutant releases. Currently: A “command-and-control” approach using “end- of-pipe” treatment measures and remediation of waste sites has reduced major environmental problems Wastewater treatment Remediation Stack controls
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Slide 5: As an alternative to the regulatory approach, the tendency now is toward sustainability with systems that emphasize recycling of materials, exchange of materials between concerns, and zero discharge of wastes. Properly designed, such systems are
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course ECON 101 taught by Professor Robert during the Fall '08 term at Montgomery College.

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EnvChBasicsCondensedLect - Narrative for a Lecture on...

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