INDEintro - Pollution Prevention and Industrial Ecology...

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Introduction • 1 November 1995 NATIONAL POLLUTION PREVENTION CENTER FOR HIGHER EDUCATION Pollution Prevention and Industrial Ecology Industrial Ecology: An Introduction By Andy Garner, NPPC Research Assistant; and Gregory A. Keoleian, Ph.D., Assistant Research Scientist, University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment, and NPPC Research Manager National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education • University of Michigan May be reproduced Dana Building, 430 East University, Ann Arbor MI 48109-1115 freely for non-commercial 734.764.1412 • fax 734.647.5841 • [email protected] • www.umich.edu/~nppcpub educational purposes. Background ................................................................. 2 Industrial Ecology: Toward a Definition ................... 3 Historical Development ......................................... 3 Defining Industrial Ecology ................................... 4 Teaching Industrial Ecology .................................. 4 Industrial Ecology as a Field of Ecology .............. 5 Goals of Industrial Ecology ........................................ 5 Sustainable Use of Resources ............................. 6 Ecological and Human Health .............................. 6 Environmental Equity ............................................ 6 Key Concepts of Industrial Ecology ......................... 6 Systems Analysis .................................................. 6 Material & Energy Flows & Transformations ........ 6 Multidisciplinary Approach .................................. 10 Analogies to Natural Systems ............................ 10 Open- vs. Closed-Loop Systems ........................ 11 Strategies for Environmental Impact Reduction: Industrial Ecology as a Potential Umbrella for Sustainable Development Strategies ................. 12 System Tools to Support Industrial Ecology .......... 12 Life Cycle Assessment ....................................... 12 Components ........................................................ 13 Methodology ........................................................ 13 Applications ......................................................... 20 Difficulties ............................................................ 20 Life Cycle Design & Design for Environment ....... 21 Needs Analysis .................................................... 21 Design Requirements ......................................... 21 Design Strategies ............................................... 24 Design Evaluation ............................................... 25 Future Needs ............................................................. 26 Further Information .................................................. 26 Endnotes .................................................................... 27 Appendix A: Industrial Symbiosis at Kalundborg .. 28 Appendix B: Selected Definitions ........................... 31 List of Tables Table 1: Organizational Hierarchies ................................. 2 Table 2: Worldwide Atmospheric Emissions of Trace Metals (Thousand Tons/Year) ................... 9 Table 3: Global Flows of Selected Materials .................... 9 Table 4: Resources Used in Automaking ........................ 10 Table 5: General Difficulties and Limitations of the LCA Methodology ....................................... 20 Table 7: Issues to Consider When Developing Environmental Requirements ........................... 23 Table 8: Strategies for Meeting Environmental Requirements ................................................... 24 Table 9: Definitions of Accounting and Capital Budgeting Terms Relevant to LCD ................... 25 List of Figures Figure 1: The Kalundborg Park ....................................... 3 Figure 2: World Extraction, Use, and Disposal of Lead, 1990 (thousand tons) ......................... 7 Figure 3: Flow of Platinum Through Various Product Systems ........................................................... 8 Figure 4: Arsenic Pathways in U.S., 1975 ....................... 8 Figure 5: System Types ................................................ 11 Figure 6: Technical Framework for LCA ........................ 13 Figure 7: The Product Life Cycle System ...................... 14 Figure 9: Flow Diagram Template ................................. 15 Figure 8: Process Flow Diagram ................................... 15 Figure 10: Checklist of Criteria With Worksheet ............. 16 Figure 11: Detailed System Flow Diagram for Bar Soap .. 18 Figure 12: Impact Assessment Conceptual Framework .. 19 Figure 13: Life Cycle Design ........................................... 22 Figure 14: Requirements Matrices .................................. 23
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2 • Introduction November 1995 Environmental problems are systemic and thus require a systems approach so that the connections between in- dustrial practices/human activities and environmental/ ecological processes can be more readily recognized.
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