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Positive relation between hardship and lack of faith

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Unformatted text preview: rally and otherwise. It is also misleading because it may denote that the economic "laws" of "Islamic economics" are not universal and generic to all human beings and human socialization.35 Furthermore, the prefix a multi-disciplinary matter. Therefore, more than often, and in all societies, non-economic means are always undertaken to solve economic problems. Once moral, technological, legal, and other frameworks are changed, a new allocation problem is given to economists. 35 Many universal laws of human behaviour can be derived from the Qur'an and Sunnah. Zarqa (ibid., pp. 15-16) gave several examples, some of them are the following: - Positive relation between richness and abuse of power from the Qur'an, 42:27 and a saying "... would you be waiting but .... a poverty that makes one forget or a richness that makes one abuse one's means") Men and women prefer more (of material things and wealth, etc.) over less (from the Qur'an, 3:14-15 and a saying to the effect that no matter how much a child of Adam gets he/she still likes more). Positive relation between economic hardship and the prevalence of the practice of Riba (from the Qur'an, 2:267 and a saying to the effect that those among whom Riba prevails are given economic hardship. Positive relation between hardship and lack of faith as well as between faith in God and bounties (the Qur'an 20:124 and 7:96). Men and women behave with extended time horizon (from a saying which tells that the Prophet drew a line representing the hope of a person, and the line extends out of human's life span). One’s own holdings are dearer to a person than the holdings one's heir (from an authentic saying). 19 "Islamic" can be restrictive36 especially when it reduces the scope of the discipline to "within" the framework of the Islamic value-loaded postulates.37 iii) The unfortunate historical incident, that Muslim fell in the shadow or periphery of human civilization for the last few centuries, allowed the discipline of economics, unlike ‘Ilm al ‘Imran, to be developed under the Judo-Roman culture. This stamps the science with a restrictive cultural imprint that deprives it from becoming fully universal. Zarqa, rightly, points out the need to clean our discipline from the value-loaded postulates incorporated in it by economists of the Judo-Roman heritage as well as from the effects of such postulates on the descriptive premises of the discipline.38 36 It seems that many Muslim economists think of Islamic economics as the study of the application of economics to Muslim societies only, whether ideal in their perfect form or actual in their realistic setting in Muslim countries today. See for example M. A. Mannan, "Why is Islamic Economics Important?" Mimeograph of the International Center for Research in Islamic Economics, 1982, especially his second, fifth and sixth reasons. Also, see Hasanuz Zaman, Op. cit. 37 As done by Zarqa when he restricted the scope of the discipline to three areas: valueloaded Islamic postulates, positive postulates derived from revelation, and positive postulates derived by economists from their observations and analysis. See Zarqa, op.cit., p.19. Moreover, this limitation contradicts Zarqa's well pronounced universality of the revelationbased positive postulates (pp.14-18). Alternatively, he could consider value-loaded postulates as special cases of the universal economic laws. 38 Zarqa, Ibid., pp.19-22. 20 iv) The Islamic economic system ought to occupy its place in the discipline of economics on the same footing as other economic systems. And like others, studying the Islamic economic system should include the "ought" as well as the effects of the "ought" on variables and relationships within the Islamic economy. These effects should be analyzed in the light of an economic theory of a universal and human nature, that has been freed from any preconceived perceptions. In this regard, Tag-el-Din proposed definition of Islamic economics, as a study of macro policies in the Islamic society, may partially fit, because of its focus on what should be done and how and towards what ends should certain behavioral situation be changed by a global decision from the authority. v) Finally, and back to the beginning of this section, the term "Islamic economics" may loosely be justified as a subbranch of economics, that deals with the Islamic economic system and its impact on the economic variables and decisions. As far as economic theory is concerned, it is the tool that allows us to understand the economic response of men and women to the framework of the Islamic economic system and to suggest suitable policies 21 for transforming the "is" into the "ought", or for how to map the "ought" into the domain of Muslims' life39. 39 M.N. Siddiqi, in "An Islamic Approach to Economics" in knowledge for What?, the Institute of Education, International Islamic University, Islamabad, 1982, pp.179-183, includes such policy recommendations as an explicit part of the...
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