unit1summary - Unit 1 Summary Notes for Ecology...

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Unit 1: Summary Notes for Ecology, Conservation and Evolution IB Biology – Higher Level Topic 5 and Option G Campbell Text References: Chapter 50: Introduction to Ecology and Biosphere Chapter 52: Population Ecology Chapter 53: Community Ecology Chapter 54: Ecosystems Chapter 55: Conservation Biology Chapter 1: Taxonomy, Evolution and Natural Selection Chapter 50 – Introduction to Ecology and Biosphere Vocabulary: Habitat: the environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism. Ecology : The Scientific Study of the Interactions between organisms and the environment Abiotic : Non-living (ex. Temp, light, water, nutrients) Biotic: Living organisms (called biota) Population: A group of individuals of the same species living in a particular geographic area. Population ecology: Concentrates mainly on factors that affect how many individuals of a particular species live in an area. Community : Consists of all the organisms of all the species that inhabit a particular area; it is an assemblage of populations of many different species. Community ecology: Deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community. This area of research focuses on how interactions such as predation, competition, and disease, as well as abiotic factors such as disturbance, affect community structure and organization.
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Ecosystem: Consists of all the abiotic factors in addition to the entire community of species that exist in a certain area. An ecosystem—a lake, for example—may contain many different communities. Ecosystem ecology: The emphasis is on energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components. Biome: Any of the world’s major ecosystems, classified according to the predominant vegetation and characterized by by adaptations of organisms to that environment Biosphere : The global ecosystem—the sum of all the planet s ecosystems. This broadest area of ecology includes the entire portion of Earth inhabited by life: the atmosphere to an altitude of several kilometers, the land down to and including water– bearing rocks at least 3 kilometers below–ground, lakes and streams, caves, and the oceans to a depth of several kilometers. An example of research at the biosphere level is the analysis of how changes in atmospheric CO 2 concentration may affect Earth s climate and, in turn, all life. Activity: Science, technology, and society: DDT DISCUSS how the science of ecology can help in the process of making difficult and complicated decisions such as whether or not to use DDT. Relationship between Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Ecology and evolutionary biology are closely related sciences. Darwin s extensive observations of the distribution of organisms and their adaptation to specific environments led him to propose that environmental factors interacting with variation within populations could cause evolutionary change. Today, we have ample evidence that events that occur in the framework of ecological time
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