James' literary career has been divided into three stages or "periods": the early period, the middle years, and the "later manner" or, more popularly, the major phase.The period of James' apprenticeship and first success — the early period of his career — is characterized by his discovery and development of the "international" theme: the study of the American abroad, the juxtaposition of New World innocence and Old World experience, American freedom and European convention, and an examination of the conflicting values of the two societies. Works of this period include Roderick Hudson (1875); The American (1877), James' first really successful novel; Daisy Miller (1879); The Europeans (1878); and the triumphant novel which ends this period, The Portrait of a Lady (1881).
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early period, major phase, Literary Career, Old World experience, New World innocence