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psych ch 5 thru 11 - Webers law Stimulus cue for depth...

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Weber’s law States that amount of stimulus you have to add before you just notice a difference or change in that stimulus depends on and is proportional to original amount of stimulus Perceptual organization Initially performed by perceptual system to determine what stimuli go together to form an object. Guided by figure ground processing. Figure is part of visual field that has meaning and stands out from the rest of the stimulus. Rest of visual field is ground. Also guided by grouping. Depth perception Perception of distance one of the most important factors underlying size and shape constancy Interposition Stimulus cue for depth perception. Objects that are closer block a complete view of objects farther away. Relative size Stimulus cue for depth perception. Objects that are larger are perceived as being nearer. Height in visual field Stimulus cue for depth perception. Object higher in visual field perceived as further away. Linear perspective Stimulus cue for depth perception. Parallel lines that stretch out into the distance seem to converge at a point. Stimulus is farther away as it approaches point of convergence. Texture gradients Stimulus cues for depth perception. Graduated change in texture or grain of visual field indicates distance Motion parallax Provides cues to the differences in the distance of various objects Accommodation Distance cue that results from the lens of the eye changing shape to bring an image to focus Convergence Depth perception cue. Closer an object is, more eyes must turn inward to focus on it. Brain uses info from muscles that move eyes inward to perceive depth Binocular disparity Difference btw two retinal images and tells brain about depth. Greater difference, closer object is. Looming
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Motion cue. Objects that enlarge quickly so that they fill retina are perceived as moving toward viewer instead of juts growing in size. Stroboscopic motion Illusion in which we perceive continual movement from a series of still images flashed in rapid succession Perceptual constancy Ability to perceive sameness even when the object on the retina changes. Have this for size, shape, brightness Top down processing Refers to aspects of recognition that begin at the top- the brain- guided by higher level cognitive processes and by psychological factors such as expectations and motivation Bottom up processing Refers to aspects of recognition that depend primarily on the brains reception of stimulus info from sensory receptors Schemas Mental models of what we know, which are created based on experience. Create perceptual sets which affect our top down processing Parallel distributed processing models Suggest that recognition of objects is based on the simultaneous operation of connected
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