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14_Language_Development_Peter_-2 - Language Development...

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Unformatted text preview: Language Development Agenda Communication and language Basic components of language Theories of language development Basic development of early language Communicative Systems How are human languages distinct from other forms of basic communication? Animal communication systems (e.g., dog wagging its tail, cats meowing, bees dancing) Gesturing between two people who can’t speak the same language Essential components Limited number of forms (displays) Limited number of messages Most forms are innate Human Languages All languages have their own set of minimal linguistic units Unlimited number of combinations, but combinations differ across languages Infinite number of messages High transmission rate All humans learn languages (unless organic problems) Estimates of human languages Languages in the world = >6,000 Languages with writing systems = 100-200 Language modalities = 2 Signed languages in the world = 200+ BSL 1-10 ASL 1-10 Four Basic Components of Language Children learn to master four basic components of language: 1. Phonology: The sequence of sounds that make up a word (Cat= /c/ /a/ /t/) 2. Semantics: The meanings of words and word combinations (Cat = furry domesticated feline) 3. Syntax: Rules used to put words together into sentences (Subject + verb + object) 4. Pragmatics: Conventions and strategies used in effective & socially acceptable verbal interactions Theories of Language Development Complex language systems are quickly acquired in childhood (most children master language by 6 years old) Early theorists did not provide an adequate explanation Behaviorists proposed modeling and reinforcement (children observe and imitate) Case Study of Genie – (1970) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bWzO8DtRd-s&feature=related Newer theoretical perspectives: Nativism Information Processing Sociocultural Functionalism Nativism Biologically based mechanism for facilitating language acquisition Language Acquisition Device (Chomsky, 1965) Language abilities are pre-wired All children reach language milestones about the same time Children seem to have a Universal Grammar Sensitive Periods / Critical Period Hypothesis Late-learners of ASL (Newport, 1990) 2nd language learners (Eric Lenneberg, 1967) Nativism Information Processing Sociocultural Functionalism Biological beginnings? Support for a biological view Left hemisphere of the brain seems to dominate language (for right handed folks) Brian lesion/trauma studies Broca’s area Language production Wernicke’s area Language comprehension Nativism Information Processing Sociocultural Functionalism Information Processing Attending to speech sounds and words Infant’s natural inclination for human speech Born with capacity to understand & make all sounds By age 1, children can only distinguish their own language sounds Infant can discriminate between /pat/ vs. /bat/ Japanese no distinction between /l/ vs. /r/ later vs. rater at one year old Nativism Information Processing Sociocultural Functionalism Information processing con’t From an early age infants pay attention to human speech Make neural commitments to parts of language Automatization of child’s own native language abilities develop at the expense of other languages Develop language proficiency based on contextual cues Form hypotheses about the meaning of words based in which the words are presented Book example - Mido vs. Theri (different animal) – children could infer Theri as being different Nativism Information Processing Sociocultural Functionalism Sociocultural Perspective Social interaction and culture aid in language development Internalize knowledge of cultural tools & objects Learn rules about using language (thank you, please) Learn linguistic behaviors (turn-taking) Acquiring language through intersubjectivity Parent/child jointly attend to an object while parent describes the object (that’s a pretty yellow flower) Helps children learn other people’s thoughts Nativism Information Processing Sociocultural Functionalism Functionalism Language development provides practical benefits to children The desire to communicate is result of heredity and environment Language is so essential for humans that they will create it (e.g., Nicaraguan Sign Language); Nativism Information Processing Sociocultural Functionalism Language Development Milestones Stage Begins Cooing 1-2 months Babbling 6-7 months One-word 11-12 months Two-words 17-18 months Multiple words (3<) 23-24 months ooooo… aaaaa.. dadadadada mama more drink Cooing & Babbling 1-2 months – Cooing begins 6 mos., Babbling begins Babbling Produced in speech and sign Timing of early babbling due to maturation Babbling is Equipotential & Bimodal Cooing: ooooo… aaaaa.. All infants babble vocally, even if they are deaf All infants use sign babble (gesture), even if they are hearing Vocal babbling Young infants can access a broader range of sounds from phonemes and syllables that are common across languages Around 10 mos. begins to match pattern of target language. Ba-ba, da-da, ma-ma, pa-pa Sign babbling One-word Stage Limited by sounds they can control - by 15 months, 10 words, one at a time Lasts for six or more months, until vocab. size is about 50 Deaf children do not spontaneously produce spoken words A possible 1st word advantage in sign language? Types of words (Nelson, 1973) object names (Nouns) like "doggie", "mommy" makes up 66% of early vocab. Actions (Verbs) like "give", "bye-bye" Modifiers (Adj) like "mine", "dirty" Social words like "yes" or "no", "whassat?” mama Two-word stage Lasts from about 18-24 months (+/- a few months) Vocabulary growth...probably about 5 new words a day Mostly content words, usually nouns and verbs Common meanings expressed by children's two word utterances or telegraphic speech All gone Bye-bye car Our car No bed More hot Airplane allgone See baby I shut Often use fixed word order Lacking in function words “Closed class” - articles, prepositions, & also tense endings more drink Multiple words & beyond Children continue to revise and refine rules until age 10, though much is done by age 6 or 7 Acquisition of morphemes depends on structural complexity and semantic complexity; Overregularization errors occur (I falled down vs. I fell down) Complex grammatical forms such as negatives, questions, connectives (e.g., and, then), embedded sentences, tag questions Individual differences: girls slightly ahead of boys until age two, then even out; Factors that can influence individual differences, such as child temperament, SES, cultural emphasis in childdirected speech or linguistic structure of the language Summary Language is more complex than basic forms of communication (minimal units/infinite combos) There are four basic components of language (Phonology, Semantics, Syntax, Pragmatics) Theories of language development help us consider the biological, sociocultural, and psychological dimensions of language Progression of language development (Cooing, Babbling, 1-word, 2-word, multi-word) For more about Genie Read 2008 article about her http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=4804490&page=4 Watch the 50 min Genie documentary on YouTube – divided up into 6 parts (Start here with Part 1) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dEnkY2iaKis Have a nice spring break! Where ever you go! ...
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