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Unformatted text preview: Teacher as a Teacher as a Researcher
Ed Psych 201
Shuai Wang (Sam) Housekeeping
Housekeeping Turn in your lecture linkage at the end of the class (leave it on the table before you leave the class) Anyone who’s not familiar with the moodle site? Talk to me after this discussion section. I will show you how to do it~ If there is any emergency which keeps you from coming to the class, be sure to let me know ahead of time. Objectives
Objectives Today, we are going to discuss several different research methods in the area of education. Goal: be able to apply these educational theories to the real educational experiments Research Methods
Research Methods 1 Descriptive Studies
2 Correlational Studies
3 Experimental Studies
4 Action Research 1. Descriptive Studies
1. Descriptive Studies Definition: A research method used to describe the educational situation as it naturally occurswhat typically happens, how teachers teach, and how students learn and develop. These Studies do not test specific relationships between variables. In this research method, general or specific behaviors or attributes are observed and measured, without respect to each other. These studies are generally the design of choice for breaking into new areas. Usually information collected from descriptive studies are for future hypotheses. Example: a researcher inquires into the quality of mental health institutions. This would be done by observation or measurements of various criteria, as opposed to relationships between variables. 2. Correlational Studies
2. Correlational Studies Definition: A research method used to measure two naturally occurring variables and summarize the nature and magnitude of their relationship in numerical form. Correlation coefficient: A statistical value that ranges from 1 to +1 to describe both the direction and extent of the relationship between two variables. Positive relationship (Hours of study/test scores)
Positive relationship Strong/Weak
+1 to 0 (0 is not included)
Negative relationship (Hours of drinking beers in the bars/test scores) Strong/Weak
1 to 0 (0 is not included)
No relationship between variables
0 Which correlation is stronger? (1) +0.5 VS. + 0.9 (2) 0.5 VS. 0.9 (3)Which correlation is the strongest? weakest? 0.1, 0.6, 0.7, 0, 0.05 3. Experimental Studies
3. Experimental Studies A research method used to test for a causeandeffect relationship between two variables. Parts of an Experiment Parts of an Experiment Literature review: review of already published relevant studies Hypothesis (and null hypothesis): Statement of your expected results (null hypothesis: the opposite statement)
Example: students who receive extra tutoring will have improved test scores The null hypothesis would be? Parts of an Experiment Parts of an Experiment Methods: explanation of exactly what occurred during the experiment including sample statistics (age, sex, ethnicity) and observed events Conclusions: a systematic evaluation of the results as compared to the hypothesis In order to design a good In order to design a good experiment, we need to control irrelevant variables. Are the experiments below well designed? (Are the irrelevant variables below well controlled?) To see if reading can improve vocabulary, an English teacher assigns a book of outside reading per month (students can choose whichever book they want to), and then the teacher tests the students vocabulary for improvement each month. To see if spatial skills can improve music reading, a conductor randomly splits his band into two groups and has one group work on spatial problems for ten minutes before rehearsal while the other group sits quietly and then tests the two groups to compare. Correlation Vs. Causation
Correlation Vs. Causation A correlation shows a similar pattern of frequency between two or more variables (I.e. “there is a high correlation between studying for a test and performing well”) Causation can only be determined through a carefully controlled experiment Correlation is different from Causation! How to determine causality How to determine causality (all three pieces are necessary) Cause and effect must covary (i.e. when one goes up the other goes up and vice versa) Cause proceeds the effect in time
All other possible explanations are ruled out (this is why we use experiments) 4. Action Research
4. Action Research A research method carried out by teachers in their own classrooms to inform and refine their personal theories of teaching and classroom practice. Five Phases of Action Research
Five Phases of Action Research Phase one: Problem Identification (why? What is the goal?)
Phase two: Plan of Action (how do we answer our question? what is the timetable? who do we observe?)
Phase three: Data Collection (quantitative, qualitative, or both?)
Phase four: Data Analysis (patterns in the data that tell as story )
Phase five: Future Plans (consequences of the results and future directions for the research) Group Project
Group Project Design four studies in the area of education with each of the four methods discussed. (Descriptive, Correlational, Experimental, Action Research) Talk with your groupmates. I will give you 5 to 10 minutes. Another Way to Define Research Another Way to Define Research Methods Qualitative
Quantitative Mixed Methods 1. Qualitative
1. Qualitative "All research ultimately has a qualitative grounding” - Donald
The aim of qualitative analysis is a complete, detailed
Recommended during earlier phases of research projects.
Researcher is the data gathering instrument.
Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects.
Data is more generalizable to other situations
Methods: case study, interview, survey, general observation
Researcher tends to become subjectively immersed in the
subject 2. Quantitative
2. Quantitative In quantitative research we classify features, count them, and
construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is
Recommended during latter phases of research projects.
All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is
Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or equipment to
collect numerical data.
Data is in the form of numbers and statistics.
Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses, but may
miss contextual detail.
Methods: experiments, Correlational studies
Researcher tends to remain objectively separated from the subject
Differences http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vmulkCjHqqw (0:32—5:17)
Calculate our average final grades ？
Career Goals ？ Application in Marketing
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=638W_s5tRq8&feature 3. Mixed Methods
3. Mixed Methods Use both qualitative and quantitative methods. Usually, when we conduct some experiments, we need to include both methods. The Scientific Approach
The Scientific Approach 3 parts: Systematic empiricism Public verification Solvable problems Systematic empiricism
Systematic empiricism Rely on observations of the world
Strive to be objective
Strive to be thorough and complete, not selective Public Verification
Public Verification Observable results
Verifiable methods Solvable Problems
Solvable Problems Concepts must be meaningfully defined Bad definition: child with attention problems Good definition: child diagnosed with and taking medication to control ADD or ADHD Hypothesis must be refutable Group project: Design a way to Group project: Design a way to study the Education plan of President Obama
(from whitehouse.gov) Group Project
Group Project You can design an experiment. (Where? When? Why do you do it? How? Method?) Or you can do some surveys to ask questions about some of your designed questions Some other ways as long as it is appropriate No Child Left Behind
No Child Left Behind What’s your opinion about Mr. George Bush’s No Child Left Behind Policy? Today, we discussed two ways of defining the research methods. One way is to divide it into Descriptive Studies, Correlational Studies, Experimental Studies, and Action Research. The other way is to divide research methods into Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods. Also, we talked about scientific approach a little bit. ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course EPSY 201 taught by Professor Zola during the Fall '10 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.
- Fall '10