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ANGLO AMERICA DEFINITIONS CENTRAL PLACE THEORY – Location theory, articulated by Christaller, that describes the basic rules governing the spatial distribution, and relationships among urban places. ‘RUST BOWL or BELT’ – A term used to describe the aging smokestack-industrial facilities of the northern and eastern United States. SUNBELT – The southern tier of states in the conterminous United States that are substantially growing in population and economic activity. CULTURE HEARTH – A term used to describe the heart, source area, and place of origin of a major culture. FRAGMENTED STATE – A discontinuous country whose territory consists of two (2) or more separated areal political units. Both Alaska and Hawaii are separated from the other 48 states. FRANCOPHONE – A country or region in which several languages are spoken, but where FRENCH is the lingua franca , or language of the elite. PLURALISTIC SOCIETY – A society composed of multiple social groups. In Canada, cultural divisions occur along ethnic and linguistic lines. In the United States, while cultural divisions have been absorbed into a ‘melting pot’, a major social cleavage remains widespread residential segregation along racial lines. RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION – The refusal of whites to share their immediate living space with non-whites across much of the United States, resulting in the concentration of whites, blacks, Latinos, and Asians into separate, distinct neighborhoods. TIME-SPACE CONVERGENCE – Conceptualization of the idea that the world is shrinking that breakthroughs in transportation and communication technology over time literally bring places ever nearer to each other. As a result, the wider dispersal of people, their activities, and their spatial reorganization is facilitated. ISOHYET – A line connecting all places receiving the same amount of ANNUAL PRECIPITATION. OROGRAPHIC PRECIPITATION – Mountain-induced precipitation, particularly where moist air masses are forced over topographic barriers. The western slope of the Rockies gains most of its precipitation through the orographic process. RAIN SHADOW EFFECT – The relative dryness in areas downwind of mountain ranges.
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