Basic Concepts Notes

Basic Concepts Notes - DEFINITION OF GEOGRAPHY Earth...

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DEFINITION OF GEOGRAPHY Earth Writings or Earth Description GEO = Earth GRAPHIEN = Writing Geography is the study of AREAS associated with the Earth’s surface. BASIC TRADITIONS OF GEOGRAPHY SPATIAL ORGANIZATION REGIONAL EARTH-SCIENCE HUMAN ECOLOGY ELEMENTS OF LOCATION COMMON REFERENCE POINT North and South Poles Equator Prime Meridian 180° th Meridian Tropic of Cancer Tropic of Capricorn Arctic Circle Antarctic Circle DIRECTION Parallels circle globe East to West Meridians extend North to South DISTANCE Latitude distance North or South of Equator graduated in degrees, minutes, seconds Equator = 0 degrees North Pole = 90 degrees north latitude South Pole = 90 degrees south latitude Longitude distance East or West of Prime Meridian graduated in degrees, minutes, seconds Prime Meridian = 0 degrees 180° th Meridian = 180 degrees ‘Y’ degrees west of the Prime Meridian. [between 00-00-01 W & 179-59-59 W]
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EARTH The length of the equator = slightly more than 24,901 miles Length of 40° of latitude = slightly more than 19,075 miles 40° of latitude = about 2,760 miles from the equator 40° of latitude = about 3,450 miles from the north (south) pole The length of latitude decreases (pole ward) as the cosine of a given latitude Polar circumference = slightly more than 24,855 miles Area of earth = about 197,000,000 square miles Earth is tilted on its axis = 23° 27’ from vertical Tropic of Cancer = 23° 27’ N latitude Summer solstice in northern hemisphere occurs when noon sun is directly over Tropic of Cancer = summer begins Tropic of Capricorn = 23° 27’ S latitude Winter solstice in northern hemisphere occurs when noon sun is directly over Tropic of Capricorn = winter begins Arctic Circle = 66° 33’ N latitude At summer solstice sunlight is continuous from 66° 33’ N to north pole At winter solstice earth’s shadow blocks sun from 66° 33’ N to north pole Antarctic Circle = 66° 33’ S latitude At summer solstice sunlight is continuous from 66° 33’ S to south pole At winter solstice earth’s shadow blocks sun from 66° 33’ S to south pole An equinox occurs twice a year (An equinox = nearly equal day and equal night everywhere on earth) (Equinox occurs when the noon sun is directly over the equator) The vernal equinox = beginning of spring The autumnal equinox = beginning of autumn International Date Line = place where each calendar day begins If the day of the week is Sunday west of the Date Line, then the day of the week east of the Date Line is Saturday. For example, if it’s noon on Sunday in Auckland, New Zealand,
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Basic Concepts Notes - DEFINITION OF GEOGRAPHY Earth...

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