A&P 7 - Chapter 7: Muscular System Chapter The...

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Chapter 7: Muscular System Chapter 7: Muscular System The human body is composed of three muscle types: Smooth Muscle Cardiac Muscle Skeletal Muscle
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Smooth Muscle Located in the walls of hollow organs and blood vessels Involuntary contraction Moves materials through organs and regulates blood flow Cylindrical cells with pointed ends Each cell is uninucleate
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Cardiac Muscle Forms the heart wall Fibers are uninucleated, striated, tubular, and branched Fibers interlock at intercalated disks , which permit contractions to spread quickly throughout the heart Contraction does not require outside nervous stimulation Nerves do affect heart rate and strength of contraction
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Skeletal Muscle Fibers are tubular, multinucleated, and striated Make up muscles attached to the skeleton Contraction is voluntary
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Types of Muscles Types of Muscles
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Connective Tissue Coverings of Skeletal Muscle Endomysium Thin layer of areolar connective tissue Surrounds each skeletal muscle fiber Perimysium – surrounds bundles of muscle fibers (fascicles) Epimysium Layer that surrounds the entire muscle Becomes part of the fascia (separates muscles from each other) Collagen fibers extend from epimysium to form tendons that attach muscles to bone
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Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle Functions of Skeletal Muscles Support the body; allows us to remain upright, even when relaxed Make bones and other body parts move Help maintain a constant body temperature Assists movement in cardiovascular and lymphatic vessels Help protect bones and internal organs, and stabilize joints
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Skeletal Muscle Skeletal Muscle
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Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Muscle fiber components Sarcolemma – plasma membrane Sarcoplasm – cytoplasm Contains glycogen that provides energy for muscle contraction Contains myoglobin which binds oxygen until needed Sarcoplasmic reticulum – endoplasmic reticulum T (transverse) tubules Formed by the sarcolemma penetrating into the cell Come into contact with expanded portions of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
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Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle Myofibrils and Sarcomeres Myofibrils run the length of the muscle fiber Composed of numerous sarcomeres Extends between two vertical Z lines Contains two types of protein myofilaments Thick filaments – made up of myosin Thin filaments – made up of actin, tropomyosin, and troponin I band contains only thin filaments A band in the center of the sarcomere contains thick and thin filaments H zone in the center of the A band has only myosin filaments
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A&P 7 - Chapter 7: Muscular System Chapter The...

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