A&P 9 - Chapter 9: Sensory System Chapter The...

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Chapter 9: Sensory System Chapter 9: Sensory System The sensory system includes a series of sensory receptors that, when stimulated, generate nerve signals by a system called a receptor potential A stimulated sensory receptor sends a signal to the brain Signals are interpreted in the brain Receptor Potentials Begin with a stimulus Can be weak or strong Can add together Do not generate action potentials
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Sensory System Sensory System Five types of sensory receptors Mechanoreceptors – stimulated by changes in pressure or body movement Thermoreceptors – stimulated by changes in the external or internal temperature Pain receptors – stimulated by damage or oxygen deprivation to the tissues Chemoreceptors – stimulated by changes in the chemical concentrations of substances Photoreceptors – stimulated by light energy
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General Senses General Senses Proprioceptors Mechanoreceptors involved in reflex actions Maintain equilibrium and posture Muscle spindles – increase the degree of muscle contraction Golgi tendon organs – decrease the degree of muscle contraction
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General Senses General Senses Cutaneous Receptors Located in the deepest layer of the epidermis and the entire dermis Make skin sensitive to touch, pressure, pain, and temperature Three types sensitive to fine touch Meissner corpuscles Merkel disks Root hair plexus Three types sensitive to pressure Pacinian corpuscles Ruffini endings Krause end bulbs Temperature receptors are free nerve endings
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General Senses General Senses Pain Receptors (nociceptors) Somatic nociceptors Skin and skeletal muscle Respond to mechanical, thermal, electrical or chemical damage Visceral nociceptors – react to excessive stretching, oxygen deprivation, or chemicals released by damaged tissues Referred pain – brain cannot distinguish between somatic pain nociceptors and internal visceral nociceptors
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Senses of Taste and Smell Senses of Taste and Smell Chemical senses Sensitive to molecules in food and in the air Other chemoreceptors in the body Govern respiratory rate Sensitive to the hydrogen ion concentration of the blood Sense of taste and sense of smell Both work together Smell can enhance taste Part of what is referred to as smell may actually be taste
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Sense of Taste Sense of Taste Sensory receptors located in the taste buds Primarily on the tongue Also present on the hard palate, the pharynx, and the epiglottis Types of taste sensations Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami – meat
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Sense of Taste Sense of Taste How the brain receives taste information Molecules in food bind with receptor proteins on microvilli on taste cells Nerve impulses are generated and go to the brain Sensory receiving and memory areas for taste are located in the insula
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Sense of Taste Sense of Taste
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A&P 9 - Chapter 9: Sensory System Chapter The...

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