A&P 10

A&P 10 - Chapter 10: Endocrine System Chapter...

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Chapter 10: Endocrine System Chapter 10: Endocrine System Endocrine glands are ductless Secrete hormones Chemical signals that influence: Metabolism Growth and development Homeostasis Categories of hormones Peptides (proteins, glycoproteins, and modified amino acids) Steroid hormones
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Endocrine System Endocrine System The endocrine system acts in a 3-step process: 1. Endocrine gland releases hormone 2. Hormone travels through the blood to the target cell 3. Hormone attaches to a receptor on the target cell
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Endocrine System Glands Endocrine System Glands Hypothalamus/Pituitary Thyroid Parathyroids Thymus Adrenals Pancreas Ovaries Testes
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Hormone Function Hormone Function The endocrine system and the nervous system work together to maintain homeostasis The endocrine system helps regulate the following: Digestion Fuel metabolism Blood pressure and volume Calcium balance Response to the external environment
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Hormone Function Hormone Function Second messenger system – used for non-steroid hormones Peptide hormone binds to a receptor protein on the plasma membrane Peptide hormone (“first messenger”) activates a “second messenger” (cyclic AMP and calcium) Second messenger sets in motion an enzyme cascade that leads to a cellular response Change in cellular behavior Formation of an end product that leaves the cell
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Non-Steroid Hormone Mode of Non-Steroid Hormone Mode of Action Action
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Hormone Function Hormone Function Intracellular mechanism of hormone function – used for steroid hormones Steroid hormones (lipids) diffuse across the plasma membrane Once inside the cell, steroid hormones bind to receptor proteins Hormone-receptor complex binds to DNA, activating particular genes Gene activation leads to production of cellular enzymes that cause cellular changes
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Steroid Hormone Mode of Action Steroid Hormone Mode of Action
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Many hormones affect concentrations of certain substances in the blood Other hormones are involved in normal function of various organs Release of hormones controlled by one or more of the following: The nervous system The action of other hormones Negative feedback mechanisms
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Hormone Feedback Mechanisms Hormone Feedback Mechanisms
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Hypothalamus Hypothalamus The hypothalamus regulates the body’s internal environment and controls secretions of the pituitary gland through releasing and inhibiting factors Neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus produce two hormones: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Oxytocin
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Hypothalamus / Pituitary Hypothalamus / Pituitary
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Posterior Pituitary Hormones Posterior Pituitary Hormones Posterior pituitary is called the neurohypophysis and stores the hypothalamic hormones ADH and oxytocin ADH Released when neurons in the hypothalamus detect that the blood is too concentrated with salt
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This note was uploaded on 11/26/2011 for the course PHY 220 taught by Professor Thomas during the Summer '10 term at N.C. State.

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A&P 10 - Chapter 10: Endocrine System Chapter...

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