A&P 15

A&P 15 - Chapter 15: Digestive System Chapter...

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Chapter 15: Digestive System Chapter 15: Digestive System Digestion includes both physical and chemical processes that reduce food into soluble molecules Functions of the digestive system: Ingest food Break food down into small molecules Absorb nutrient molecules Eliminate nondigestible wastes
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Anatomy of the Digestive System Anatomy of the Digestive System The Mouth (Oral Cavity) Tongue is composed of skeletal muscle Papillae Help it handle food Contain taste buds Frenulum attaches it to the floor of the mouth Roof separates it from the nasal cavities Hard palate Soft palate Salivary glands Parotid Sublingual Submandibular Saliva Salivary amylase – begins the process of digesting starch Moistens food and prepares it for swallowing Antibacterial lysozyme and secretory antibodies
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Anatomy of the Digestive System Anatomy of the Digestive System The Pharynx Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids) Three parts Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Swallowing Voluntary phase Reflex action – once food or drink is pushed back to the oropharynx
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Anatomy of the Digestive System Anatomy of the Digestive System The Esophagus Muscular tube Peristalsis pushes food along the alimentary canal Function is to transport food to the stomach Esophageal sphincter marks the entrance to the stomach Heartburn occurs when some of the stomach contents escapes into the esophagus
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Anatomy of the Digestive System Anatomy of the Digestive System The Wall of the Digestive Tract Mucosa (mucous membrane layer) Layer of epithelium Lines the lumen Glandular epithelial cells secrete digestive enzymes Goblet cells secrete mucus Submucosa (submucosal layer) Loose connective tissue Contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves Peyer’s patches are scattered throughout the submucosa Muscularis (smooth muscle layer) Inner, circular layer Outer, longitudinal layer Serosa (serous membrane layer) Thin, outermost layer of squamous epithelium Secretes serous fluid Adventitia – outer layer of the esophagus
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Anatomy of the Digestive System Anatomy of the Digestive System
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Anatomy of the Digestive System Anatomy of the Digestive System The Stomach Thick-walled, J-shaped organ Continuous with the esophagus and duodenum of the small
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A&P 15 - Chapter 15: Digestive System Chapter...

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