Chapter 1 – An Overview of Nutrition
After completing Chapter 1, the student will be able to:
Discuss the major reasons people make food choices.
List the six nutrients contained in food and a major use of each nutrient.
Identify the energy-providing nutrients and calculate the energy available from foods.
List the types of research designs and the strengths and weaknesses of each.
Discuss Dietary Reference Intakes and the 4 parts of the DRI including the Estimated Average Requirements
(EAR), Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), Adequate Intakes (AI), and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels
Explain the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) and how it is used to maintain energy balance.
Discuss the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) and how they relate to a healthy diet.
Identify the chronic diseases that are linked to diet or alcohol.
I. Food Choices
play a significant role in life. An individual’s
over time can affect health in a positive
or negative way.
illness later in life can be affected by food choices throughout life. Many
times, choices are made based on emotional, environmental, or peer influences rather than based on good
Personal preferences for flavors of food are the main reason people make food choices and choices can be
influenced by genetics.
Habits are comforting and food choices are often just a habit.
Ethnic heritage or traditions are strong influences on eating.
Social interactions such as special events, customs, and holidays are shared by groups of people. Food is
Food availability, convenience, and the economy are affecting many food choices in today’s world.
There are many positive and negative associations with food that affect what food is chosen to eat.
Eating for emotional comfort can be the result of changes in brain chemistry that occur when foods are
consumed. While this may be appropriate at times, it can lead to overeating.
Values such as religious beliefs, political views, or environmental concerns may affect food choices.
Body weight and image can affect food choices both positively and negatively.
The nutrition and health benefits of
, such as whole, modified, or fortified foods, are
becoming more popular.
II. The Nutrients
The nutrient classes include carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, minerals and water. Nutrients support the
growth, maintenance and repair of body tissues. Essential nutrients are those nutrients that the body cannot
make or cannot make in sufficient quantities. Maintaining a healthy body requires the continual replenishment