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Chapter 7 _Metabolism_- Study Resources

Chapter 7 _Metabolism_- Study Resources - Chapter 7...

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1 Chapter 7 – Metabolism: Transformations and Interactions Learning Objectives After completing Chapter 7, the student will be able to: 1. Discuss the chemical reactions that occur within the body, including metabolism, anabolism and catabolism. 2. Describe how carbohydrates, proteins and fats are used to meet the energy needs of the body. 3. Explain the process of glycolysis. 4. Explain the process of deamination and the synthesis of non-essential amino acids. 5. Discuss the TCA cycle and the electron transport chain. 6. Explain what happens in the body during feasting and fasting. I. Chemical Reactions in the Body Plants use the sun’s energy to make carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water. This is called photosynthesis . Humans and animals eat the plants and use the carbohydrate as fuel for their bodies. During digestion, the energy-yielding nutrients are broken down to monosaccharides, fatty acids, glycerol, and amino acids. After absorption, enzymes and coenzymes can build more complex compounds. In metabolism they are broken down further into energy (ATP), water and carbon dioxide. A. Metabolic reactions take place inside of cells, especially liver cells. B. Anabolism is the building up of body compounds and requires energy. C. Catabolism is the breakdown of body compounds and releases energy. D. The Transfer of Energy in Reactions—ATP 1. A high-energy compound called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is made. 2. Coupled reactions are chemical reactions that occur simultaneously. E. Enzymes and coenzymes are helpers in reactions. 1. Enzymes are protein catalysts that cause chemical reactions. 2. Coenzymes are organic molecules that function as enzyme helpers. 3. Cofactors are organic or inorganic substances that facilitate enzyme action. II. Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy The breakdown of glucose to energy starts with glycolysis to pyruvate . Pyruvate may be converted to lactic acid anaerobically (without oxygen) and acetyl CoA aerobically (with oxygen). Eventually, all energy- yielding nutrients enter the TCA cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle (or Kreb’s cycle ) and the electron transport chain .
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