Chapter 10 _Water Soluble Vitamins_- Study Resources

Chapter 10 _Water Soluble Vitamins_- Study Resources -...

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Chapter 10 – The Water-Soluble Vitamins: B Vitamins and Vitamin C Learning Objectives After completing Chapter 10, the student will be able to: 1. Define a vitamin and classify vitamins as water soluble or fat soluble. 2. List the B vitamins and identify the major functions of each vitamin in the body. 3. Identify the non-B vitamins. 4. Describe the role of B vitamins in metabolism. 5. List a major food source of each of the B vitamins. 6. Identify the major deficiency disease associated with each B vitamin. 7. List the major uses of vitamin C in the body. 8. Identify the vitamin C requirement of the body and factors that may increase this requirement. 9. Identify the signs and symptoms of vitamin C deficiency and toxicity. 10. Identify major food sources of vitamin C. I. The Vitamins —An Overview Vitamins differ from carbohydrate, fat and protein in structure, function and food contents. Vitamins are similar to the energy-yielding nutrients in that they are vital to life, organic and available from foods. Both deficiencies and excesses of the vitamins can affect health. A. Bioavailability is the rate and extent that a nutrient is absorbed and used. B. Precursors, also known as provitamins, are consumed in an inactive form and become active vitamins in the body. C. The organic nature of vitamins means they can be destroyed by exposure to light, oxidation, cooking, and storage. There are methods used to minimize nutrient losses. 1. Refrigerate fruits and vegetables. 2. Store cut fruits and vegetables in airtight wrappers or closed containers and refrigerate. 3. Clean fruits and vegetables before they are cut. 4. Use a microwave, steam, or simmer in small amounts of water. Save cooking water for other uses. Avoid high temperatures and long cooking times. D. Solubility and storage 1. Water-soluble vitamins (B vitamins and vitamin C) are absorbed directly into the blood and travel freely. a. Circulate freely b. Excreted in urine 2. Fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, K and E) are absorbed first into the lymph, then the blood. Many require protein carriers. a. Stored in cells associated with fat b. Less readily excreted E. Toxicity 1. Water-soluble vitamins can reach toxic levels with supplement use. 2. Fat-soluble vitamins are likely to reach toxic levels with supplement use. 3. DRI Committee has established Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for niacin, vitamin B 6 , folate, choline and vitamin C. II. The B Vitamins—As Individuals The B vitamins are very active in the body. Several of the B vitamins form part of the coenzymes that assist enzymes in the release of energy. Other B vitamins participate in metabolism and cell multiplication. Recommendations for the B vitamins come from RDA, AI, and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. There are deficiencies, toxicities and food sources that are unique for each vitamin.
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2 A. Thiamin (Vitamin B 1 ) – Thiamin is involved in energy metabolism as part of the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP). 1.
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course HUN 2201 taught by Professor Sitren during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Chapter 10 _Water Soluble Vitamins_- Study Resources -...

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