Chapter 11 _Fat Soluble Vitamins_- Study Resources

Chapter 11 _Fat Soluble Vitamins_- Study Resources -...

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Chapter 11 – The Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, and K Learning Objectives After completing Chapter 11, the student will be able to: 1. Identify the roles of vitamin A and describe the effects of vitamin A deficiency and toxicity. 2. List food sources of vitamin A and beta carotene. 3. Describe the uses of vitamin D in the body and the effects of deficiency and toxicity. 4. Identify food and non-food sources of vitamin D. 5. Identify the role of vitamin E in the body and the effects of vitamin E deficiency and toxicity. 6. List food sources of vitamin E. 7. Identify the role of vitamin K in the body and the effects of vitamin K deficiency and toxicity. 8. List food and non-food sources of vitamin K. 9. Define the term free radical and explain its role in the development of disease. 10. Describe the role of an antioxidant and identify dietary antioxidants. 11. Discuss the roles of food and supplements as sources of dietary antioxidants. I. Vitamin A (also known as retinol, retinal, retinoic acid) and Beta-Carotene Vitamin A is found in the body in compounds known as retinoids : retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid. These have functional roles in vision, healthy epithelial cells, and growth. Vitamin A deficiency is a major health problem in the world. Toxicity is often associated with abuse of supplements. Plant foods provide carotenoids, such as beta-carotene , some of which have vitamin A activity . Animal foods provide compounds that are easily converted to retinol. Retinol binding protein (RBP) allows vitamin A to be transported throughout the body. A. Roles in the Body 1. Vitamin A in Vision a. Helps to maintain the cornea b. Conversion of light energy into nerve impulses at the retina c. Rhodopsin is a light-sensitive pigment of the retina that contains a protein called opsin . 2. Vitamin A in Protein Synthesis and Cell Differentiation a. Through cell differentiation , vitamin A allows cells to perform specific functions. b. Epithelial cells 1. Epithelial tissues on the outside of the body form the skin. 2. Epithelial tissues on the inside of the body form the mucous membranes . 3. Vitamin A in Reproduction and Growth a. Sperm development in men b. Normal fetal development in women c. Growth in children d. Remodeling of the bone involves osteclasts, osteoblasts, and lysosomes. 1. Osteoclasts are cells that destroy bone growth. 2. Osteoblasts are cells that build bones. 3. Lysosomes are sacs of degradative enzymes that destroy bones. 4. Beta-Carotene as an Antioxidant a. Beta-carotene helps protect the body from diseases, including cancer. B. Vitamin A Deficiency - Because vitamin A is stored in the body, it would take a year or more to develop a deficiency in the presence of inadequate intake. 1. Infectious Diseases a. Impaired immunity correlates with vitamin A deficiency in children.
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course HUN 2201 taught by Professor Sitren during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Chapter 11 _Fat Soluble Vitamins_- Study Resources -...

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