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Chapter 13 _Trace Minerals_- Study Resources

Chapter 13 _Trace Minerals_- Study Resources - Chapter 13...

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1 Chapter 13 – The Trace Minerals Learning Objectives After completing Chapter 13, the student will be able to: 1. Identify the functions of iron in the body. 2. Identify factors that increase and decrease iron absorption from the diet. 3. Describe the transport and storage of iron in the body. 4. Discuss populations at risk for iron deficiency and identify symptoms of iron deficiency and iron toxicity. 5. Identify food sources of iron and determine the amount needed daily. 6. Discuss the role of zinc in the body and the absorption, metabolism and transport of zinc. 7. Describe zinc deficiency, toxicity and recommended dietary intake. 8. Identify major food sources of zinc and discuss the use of zinc supplements. 9. Describe the roles of iodine in the body and the deficiency diseases seen with inadequate intake. 10. Describe the effects of excess iodine intake. 11. Identify food sources of iodine and the impact of iodization of salt. 12. Describe the uses of selenium in the body and the role of selenium in cancer protection. 13. Identify food sources of selenium and the amount needed daily. 14. Describe the role of copper in the body and major food sources of copper. 15. Describe the role of manganese in the body and the major sources of the trace mineral. 16. Explain the uses of fluoride in the body and its role in dental caries prevention. 17. Identify the effects of fluoride toxicity and the major sources of fluoride to the body. 18. Describe the uses of chromium in the body and its relationship to diabetes. 19. Identify the food sources of chromium and the role of chromium supplementation for weight control. I. The Trace Minerals —An Overview Trace minerals are needed in very small quantities in the human body. They perform many essential functions important to health. Toxic levels can easily be reached with the use of supplements. Humans can get the amounts of trace minerals needed by consuming a wide variety of foods. A. Food Sources 1. Depends on soil and water composition 2. Depends on processing 3. Bioavailability 4. Wide variety of unprocessed foods B. Deficiencies 1. Severe deficiencies of some minerals are easy to recognize, while others can be difficult to diagnose. 2. Mild deficiencies are easily overlooked. 3. Deficiencies have wide-reaching effects. 4. Deficiencies affect all ages, but in children, they can affect growth. C. Toxicities 1. Do not exceed Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. 2. FDA does not limit amounts in supplements. 3. Do not exceed 100% Daily Values. D. Interactions 1. Common and coordinated to meet body needs 2. Can lead to nutrient imbalances II. Iron Iron is an essential nutrient found in the body as a part of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Iron is used for energy metabolism and enzyme activity. Special proteins assist with iron absorption, transport, and storage. Both iron deficiency and iron toxicity cause damage so balance is important. Heme iron is better absorbed but nonheme iron absorption can be enhanced.
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2 A. Iron Roles in the Body 1. Ferrous iron is reduced and has a net positive charge of two.
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Chapter 13 _Trace Minerals_- Study Resources - Chapter 13...

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