Chapter 14 _Nutrition and Fitness_- Study Resources

Chapter 14 _Nutrition and Fitness_- Study Resources -...

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1 Chapter 14 – Fitness: Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body Adaptations Learning Objectives After completing Chapter 14, the student will be able to: 1. List the benefits of regular physical activity. 2. Explain the components of fitness and conditioning. 3. Describe the energy systems of physical activity, including ATP and CP. 4. Describe the use of glucose and glycogen as body fuels during exercise. 5. Describe a diet to minimize glucose depletion during exercise. 6. Explain the principle of carbohydrate loading, including the diet to build glycogen stores. 7. Explain the role of dietary and body fats during prolonged exercise. 8. Describe the uses of protein during exercise and determine the protein needs of the athlete. 9. Discuss the roles of vitamin E and iron in the athlete. 10. Explain sports anemia and the iron requirements for the athlete. 11. Discuss fluid needs of the athlete and the symptoms and consequences of inadequate intake. 12. Describe the hydration schedule for physical activity and the need for electrolyte replacement. 13. Discuss the effects of caffeine and alcohol on an athlete’s performance. 14. Plan meals for pre-game and post-game to promote health and performance. I. Fitness Fitness involves physical activity or exercise . The components of fitness are cardiorespiratory endurance , flexibility , muscle strength , and muscle endurance . All of these characteristics describe a healthy body. Today’s world encourages sedentary lifestyles that foster the development of several chronic diseases. A. Benefits of Fitness 1. Restful sleep 2. Nutritional health 3. Optimal body composition 4. Optimal bone density 5. Resistance to colds and other infectious diseases 6. Low risks of some types of cancer 7. Strong circulation and lung function 8. Low risk of cardiovascular disease 9. Low risk of type 2 diabetes 10. Reduced risk of gallbladder disease in women 11. Low incidence and severity of anxiety and depression 12. Long life and high quality of life in the later years B. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans state that people need to participate in 30 minutes of physical activity most days of the week for health benefits and 60 minutes to maintain a healthy body weight. C. Developing Fitness 1. Guidelines for conditioning that are achieved through training . a. Cardiorespiratory Endurance 1. Frequency – 3-5 days per week 2. Intensity – 55-90% maximum heart rate 3. Duration – 20-60 minutes b. Strength 1. Frequency – 2-3 days per week 2. Intensity – enough to enhance muscle strength , muscle endurance , and improve body composition 3. Duration – 8 to 12 repetitions of 8 to 10 different exercises c. Flexibility 1. Frequency – 2-3 days per week
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2 2. Intensity – enough to develop and maintain a full range of motion 3. Duration – 4 repetitions of 10-30 seconds per muscle group 2. The Overload Principle – to slightly increase comfortable capacity in each area. This is also called the progressive overload principle .
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Chapter 14 _Nutrition and Fitness_- Study Resources -...

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