Glossary of Microbiology

Glossary of Microbiology - MCB 2000 Glossary of...

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MCB 2000 Glossary of Microbiology A ABO blood group system The classification of red blood cells based on the presence or absence of A and B carbohydrate antigens. acid A substance that dissociates into one or more hydrogen ions (H + ) and one or more negative ions. acid-fast stain A differential stain used to identify bacteria that are not decolorized by acid-alcohol. acidic dye A salt in which the color is in the negative ion; used for negative staining. acidophile A bacterium that grows below pH 4. acid precipitation Rain, snow, sleet, hail, or drizzle containing acidic oxides of sulfur, nitrogen, etc. that are released into the atmosphere, usually from the combustion of fossil fuels, and return to Earth dissolved in precipitation. acquired immune deficiency The inability, obtained during the life of an individual, to produce specific antibodies or T cells, due to drugs or disease. acquired immunity The ability, obtained during the life of the individual, to produce specific antibodies. activated macrophage A macrophage that has increased phagocytic ability and other functions after exposure to mediators released by T cells after stimulation by antigens. activated sludge system A process used in secondary sewage treatment in which batches of sewage are held in highly aerated tanks; to ensure the presence of microbes efficient in degrading sewage, each batch is inoculated with portions of sludge from a precious batch, called activated sludge. activation energy The minimum collision energy required for a chemical reaction to occur. active site a region on an enzyme that interacts with the substrate. active transport Net movement of a substance across a membrane against a concentration gradient; requires the cell to expend energy. acute disease A disease in which symptoms develop rapidly but last for only a short time. adenosine triphosphate (ATP) An important intracellular energy source. adherence Attachment of a microbe or phagocyte to another’s plasma membrane or other surface. adhesin A carbohydrate-specific binding protein that projects from procaryotic cells; used for adherence, also called ligand. aerobe An organism requiring oxygen (O 2 ) for growth. aerobic respiration Respiration in which the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is oxygen (O 2 ). aerotolerant anaerobe An organism that does not use molecular oxygen (O 2 ) but is not affected by its presence. aflatoxin A carcinogenic toxin produced by Aspergillus flavus . agar A complex polysaccharide derived from a marine seaweed and used as a solidifying agent in culture media. agglutination A joining together or clumping of cells. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) An infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in which the virus destroys the immune system and leaves the body vulnerable to opportunistic infections and malignancies. airborne transmission
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This note was uploaded on 11/27/2011 for the course MCB 2000 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Glossary of Microbiology - MCB 2000 Glossary of...

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