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Locus of control


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Unformatted text preview: LOCUS OF CONTROL LOCUS OF CONTROL Individual’s perception of how much Individual’s control he or she exerts over events in life. control External Internal Thus, locus of control is conceptualised as referring to a unidimensional continuum, ranging from external to internal: External Locus of Control Individual believes that his/her behaviour is guided by fate, luck, or other external circumstanc es Internal Locus of Control Individual believes that his/her behaviour is guided by his/her personal decisions and efforts. Characteristics of Individuals Characteristics INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Kohlberg & Moral Development “Do I do the right things for the right reason?” Kant – Motive Matters Quiz Show: Van Dorn saw himself doing the right thing for the right reason – a good guy. Where did he go wrong? Where did he cross the line? Kant sees Utilitarianism as doing the right thing (behaving in an ethical way) for the wrong reason (to maximize my welfare/happiness/pleasure) Kant also rejects doing the right thing to reward or promote virtue. http://www.justiceharvard.org/index.php?option=com_content& “The sight of a being who is not adorned with a single feature of a pure and good will, enjoying unbroken prosperity, can never give pleasure to an impartial rational spectator. Thus a good will appears to constitute the indispensable condition even of being worthy of happiness.” - I. Kant • • • Can’t derive ethical principles from desires for happiness or PREFERENCES. This would mean that morality is relative and varies from culture to culture – There would be no ability to distinguish ultimate right from wrong – only the ability calculate • Kant bases ethics on the human ability to reason, human dignity, and freedom to choose right from wrong (agency) If we are “clumps of meat,” (an empirical view) governed by natural laws, then we are not truly agents able to distinguish right from wrong. • • • Knowing right from wrong gives our lives meaning. How can we ultimately get “meaning out of meat” Kant says our reasoning ability makes us more than just “meat” (brains, chemicals, hormones) but beings with dignity worthy of respect How do we see ourselves? • Do we see ourselves as worthy of respect? Even from ourselves? • When we respect ourselves, we are prone toward dignified behavior. • We have integrity and responsibility along with human rights, and freedom Is there such a thing as true altruism? • Hedonism: all motivations are for the benefit of self • Are you a hedonist or an altruist? COGNITIVE BIASES COGNITIVE • how we view the world • how we view ourselves – Am I a hedonist or how an altruist? • Do I think I’m an altruist, but am really not? • Would Kant approve of my motives? • Do I pursue happiness? Or does happiness Do pursue ensue? ensue Cognitive Barriers to Good Ethical Judgment Cognitive Script Processing – what are scripts? • A schema (pl. schemata or schemas), in psychology and cognitive science, describes any of several concepts including: • An organized pattern of thought or behavior. • A structured cluster of pre-conceived ideas. • A mental structure that represents some aspect of the world. Cognitive Barriers to Good Ethical Judgment Ethical • A specific knowledge structure or cognitive representation of the self. • A mental framework centering on a specific theme, that helps us to organize social information. • Structures that organize our knowledge and assumptions about something and are used for interpreting and processing information. • Barriers to Fact Gathering • Overconfidence “Confirmation Trap” Confirmation http://www.fastcompany.com/1657515/a-theory-called-a-fundamenta http://www.fastcompany.com/1657515/a-theory-called-a-fundamenta Barriers to Consideration of Consequences Reduced number ignore consequences that affect few Risk underestimated: illusion of optimism, illusion of control More Cognitive Barriers More Barriers to thoughts about integrity Illusion of superiority Barriers to attention to gut Careful! Gut may be wrong Hobbes Hobbes • Hereby it is manifest, that during the time Hereby men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such a war, is every man, against every man .... In such condition, there is no place for industry...or culture...or knowledge...no arts; no letters, no society; and which is worst of all, there is continual fear, and danger of violent death; and the life of man is solitary poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Locke Locke • Let us then suppose the mind to be, as we Let say, white paper, void of all characters, without any ideas; how comes it to be furnished? Whence comes it by that vast store which the busy and boundless fancy of man has painted on it with an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer in one word, from experience; in that all our knowledge is founded, and from that it ultimately derives itself. Rousseau Rousseau • Above all, let us not conclude, with Hobbes, that because Above man has no idea of goodness, he must be naturally wicked; that he is vicious because he does not know virtue...so it may be justly said that savages are not bad merely because they do not know what it is to be good: for it is neither the development of the understanding nor the restraint of the law that hinders them from doing ill; but the peacefulness of their passions, and their ignorance of vices .... It is then certain that compassion is a natural feeling, which by moderating the violence of love of self in each individual, contributes to the preservation of the whole species. ...
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