ferrous1 - FERROUS METALS FERROUS Outline Outline Wrought...

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Unformatted text preview: FERROUS METALS FERROUS Outline Outline Wrought Iron (Prehistoric Era to 1500 AD) Pig Iron & Molten “Cast” Iron Blast Furnace Mineral Fuels Puddling Furnace Bessemer & Thomas Processes Basic Oxygen Process Siemens Process & Open-Hearth Furnace Electric Furnaces Classifications Classifications Open-Hearth Iron & Wrought Iron Few Hundredths Of 1% Carbon Steels 0.04 to 2.25% Carbon Cast Iron, Malleable Cast Iron, & Pig Iron 2 to 4 % Carbon White-Heart Malleable Iron Virtually No Carbon Iron Characteristics Iron Fourth Most Abundant Element In World Iron Ores Dusty Reddish-Brown Rock Mixture Of Iron & Oxygen (Iron Oxide) Iron Has A Strong Affinity For Oxygen - Rusts Iron Has Strong Affinity For Sulfur Carbon Has A Greater Affinity For Oxygen Carbon & Oxygen Unite To Form A Gas Small Quantities Of Other Elements 25 to 75% Iron Wrought Iron (Before 1500 AD) Wrought Beginnings - Speculation (Absence Of Facts) Accidental Smelting Of Iron Ores Iron Ore Stones Reduced To Iron By Wood Fire Forced Draft - High Wind Hammering Iron While Hot To Produce Tools Iron Implements - Egypt (3000 BC) Hardening By Heat Treatment - Greeks (1000 BC) Spread To Europe & Britain (1000 BC) Fibrous Structure - Like Wood Shaped & Welded By Hammering While Hot Wrought Iron (Before 1500 AD) Wrought Early Production - Bloomery Small Furnace Made Of Clay Heated By Charcoal Fire Forced Bellows Charcoal & Iron Ore Fed Through Aperture At Top Oxygen In Ore & Carbon From Charcoal Formed Oxygen Gas That Burned a Blue Flame Gas After Oxygen Burnt Off Ore, Tapped From Bottom Bloom - Small, Spongy Ball Of Iron Produced Hammered On Anvil Drive Out Slag, And Weld & Consolidate Iron Wrought Iron (Before 1500 AD) Bloomery Never Operated On A Large Scale Produced Iron Containing About 3% Slag & 0.1% Produced Other Impurities Other Accidental Production Of Steel Heat Wrought Iron & Charcoal In Clay Boxes For Heat Several Days Several Absorbed Carbon To Produce True Steel Early Blast Furnace Early First Great Step In Iron Production Introduced In Liege, Belgium (Late 1400s) Reached England In 1500s Short Square Chimney Built Of Brick Or Stone 10 to 16’ High Similar To Bloomery, Only Bigger Operated At Higher Temperature Higher Ratio Of Charcoal To Ore Iron Absorbed More Carbon From Blast Of Air Produced Molten (Cast) Iron Early Blast Furnace Molten (Cast) Iron Accumulated At Bottom Tapped At Intervals Molten (Cast) Iron Channeled To Form “Pigs” Pig Iron As As Charcoal & Iron Are Used, More Is Added At Top At Limestone Was Added - “Flux” Combined With Waste Materials Formed Molten Waste - “Slag” Pig Iron Pig As Produced From Blast Furnace, Contains Iron, 92% Carbon, 3 To 4% Silicon, 0.5 To 3% Manganese, 0.25 To 2.5% Phosphorous, 0.04 To 2% Sulfur, Trace Amounts Molten “Cast” Iron (1500 - 1700) Molten Few Uses - Must Be Cast On Site At Time Cast Iron Cannons - Sussex (1543) Molten Iron Went Through Second Process Finery Produce Wrought Iron Rational Was Increased Production Blast Furnace Could Make 10 Times Bloomery Finery - Furnace Charcoal As Fuel & Waterwheel-Driven Bellows Cast Iron Re-Melted To Drive Off Carbon Finery Finery Produced Large Pieces Of Wrought Iron Led To Problems Ironworkers Needed Long Thin Bars Power Hammer (Late 1500s) Waterwheel-Driven Pounded Iron Into Flat Thin Slabs Slitting Mill (Late 1500s) Cut Slabs Into Strips Rolling Mill Sketch - Leonardo da Vinci (1486) Mineral Fuels Mineral Till 1700, Charcoal Was Used As Fuel Made By Burning Large Heaps Of Wood Impurities Burn Off In Smoke Cool Quickly With Water Coal Was Tried Unsuccessfully In Furnace Patent - Dud Dudley (1600s) Contains Sulfur Sulfur Easily Unites With Iron - Iron Sulfides Makes Iron Brittle When Hot Or Cold Mineral Fuels Mineral Second Great Step In Iron Production Beginning Of Industrial Revolution Use Of Coke In Blast Furnace Abraham Darby (1709) Coalbrookedale In Shropshire - Museum First Blast Furnace Using Coke Slow Spread Of Technology Coke Was Already Invented - Make Malt (Brewing) Coke Made By Burning Large Heaps Of Coal Impurities (Sulfur) Burn Off In Smoke Cool Quickly With Water History Of Blast Furnaces History 1600 85 Charcoal-Fired Blast Furnaces In Britain 1788 53 Coke-Fired Blast Furnaces In Britain 24 Charcoal-Fired Early 1800s No Charcoal-Fired Furnaces Still Operating France France Montcenis-Le Creusot 1785 First First French Coke-Fired Blast Furnace Blast Very Slow Very Dissemination Of Technique From Britain Technique Developments Of Blast Furnaces Developments Preheating Of Air Blast - J.B. Nelson (1828) Increased Production Previously - 8 Tons Coal For 1 Ton Iron After - 2.25 Tons Coal For 1 Ton Iron Increased Quality Reshaping Furnaces - John Gibbons (1832) Round Hearth - 33% More Productive Use Of Waste Gas Inflammable Gas In Produced Preheating Of Hot Air Blast Developments Of Blast Furnaces Bell & Hopper (Cup & Cone) - G. Perry (1850) Multiple Hopper Prevent Loss Of Gas Increasing Increasing Oxygen Content Of Hot Air Blast Pressurizing Furnaces Throttling The Flow Of Gas From Furnace Vents Increases Pressure To 1.7 atm Better Combustion Post W.W.II International International Le Creusot, 1865 Gluwitz In Silesia, 1830 Pontypool, 1865 Typical Ironworks Typical Mechanically-Charged Blast Furnace Corby, Northhamptonshire 1900 Typical Blast Furnace Components Cylindrical Steel Shell Lined With Refractory Nonmetallic Substance - Firebrick Approximately 100’ High Shell Is Tapered At Top & Bottom Creates Nozzle Effect Lower Portion Is Called Bosh Tubular Openings Called Tuyeres - Hot Air Blast Holes At Bottom Are Tapped Upper - Slag Lower - Molten Pig Iron To Torpedo Top Portion Lets Gases Escape (Vent) Typical Blast Furnace Components (Continued) Hoppers Charge Is Introduced Through Bell-Shaped Valves Charge Mixture Of Iron Ore, Coke, & Limestone Hot Air Stoves Produce Hot Air Dump Cars Or Skips Deliver Charge To Hopper Typical Blast Furnace Operation Operate Continuously Small Charges Are Introduced At 10-15 Minutes Spontaneous Combustion Of Charge Slag Is Tapped Every 2 Hours Molten Iron Tapped Five Times A Day Hot Air Enters At 1000 To 1600oF Waste Gases Are Recirculated ? Typical Blast Furnace Typical ...
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